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PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)

Lecture 1 -11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65-L ECTURE 01:I NTRODUCTION - Read book normal vs. Diseases brain function - 2 exams midterm (40%) & final (60%) - on both textbook & lecture o Non cumulative if midterm written o Cumulative if midterm not written - Lecture slides on intranet or N ERVOUS SYSTEM - 2 major parts Central & Peripheral Nervous System ( CNS & PNS) - CNS brain & spinal cord - PNS- all other nerves expect of brain & spinal that serves rest of body all the nerves that goes out from the brain & spinal cord - No dividing line/ part b/w brain & spinal cord o Spinal cord simply goes into the foramen magnum (hole in the back of brain) & continues on to the brain B RAIN - When looking at brain see mostly cerebral cortex & cerebellum but there is a lot you cant see - In turns of Overall organization humans brain look similar to that of rats, mice, cats o Overall organization forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain - Forebrain also known as Telencephalon/ Diencephalon - Midbrain also known as Mesencephalon - Hindbrain also known as Metencephalon/ Myelencephalon 1 Hindbrain (from the back) - Gold/orange colour base (fairly simple) back of brain sometime talk about it as brain stem - Major components : Cerebellum & Medulla - Cerebellum ( it kind of sticks out of brain stem) involved in sensory motor integration ( it takes sensory input mostly motor output) o E.g. balance, manoeuvre, stand erect o Damage to this look like a drunk moments are jerky & uncoordinated - Medulla (inside the brain core) involved in basic life processes o E.g. heart rate, respiration (in brain steam) keeps you alive at the most basic level o Dont want to damage tumour, stroke usually result in death 2 Midbrain - Greyish/green 1 - Primary structure : Reticular Formation area composed of # of different nuclei involved in sleep-wake cycle circadian cycle wakes us up & put us back to sleep o Damage most likely lead to coma rd 3 Forebrain - Makes most of brain area most anterior portion of brain it is sub categorize - This is evolution in human favoured in terms of mass it is mostly forebrain - Several parts : o Mid- centre portion thalamus this is relay centre from s & some processing , particularly in humans & higher level mammals Since we have this big cortex when it got bigger have to have relay centre to convey info up to appropriate place in neo-cortex Info from every sensory system in the body is sent to thalamusthen relay to cortex for major processes o Underneath thalamus hypothalamus - good stuff in life controls life function but not the primitive ones such as heart beat 4Fs ( finding, feeding, fighting, F sex) this is not just in primates keep species alive e.g. thirst, hunger, territoriality, sexual behaviour o Move forward (beyond thalamus & hypothalamus) Limbic system (deep inside neo- cortex) made up of # of diff structures: Amygdala, Hippocampus , hypothalamus is partially involved & most people argue Olfactory bulb involved Things involved in emotions & emotionality hippocampus, medulla, hypothalamus Dog has big Limbic system vs. Snake --> feel more emotions o At the very front Most anterior portion cerebral cortex / neo-cortex not connect to anything curves back & cover everything & also known as neo-cortex it is big & begins to fold involved in higher brain function most of human brain e.g. speech , reasoning, IQ, info-processing Functions that are mostly very specific to humans EVOLUTION OF BRAIN - Reptiles exist before humans w/ dinosaur brain havent change much - Look at Dog fish & goldfish brain is fairly simple - w/ evolution get greater ability to decipher info from environment make sense out of it & use it to survive o Animals that could do that start developing Nuclei (able to process more info got larger) developed in anterior portion of NS like bumps involved in increasing # of cell that are associated w/ particular pathwaydeveloped more nuclei survived - In turtle forebrain bigger < rat bigger < human bigger 2 o Humans evolved much larger cerebral cortex (humans dont have the biggest cortex comparing cortex size w/ body weight it is dolphins ) Neo-cortex is dominant for survival - Generally size of structure& development relates to the important & the use of function of that part of species (more developed) o E.g. rat olfactory bulb bigger compared to human info about smell they depend on heavily on smell such as for sexual behaviour BRAIN D EVELOPMENT - Generally ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny what individual goes through from development (ontogeny conceive to adult) is similar to our development as species o Same for brain development from conceive to adult: at 3 weeks very primitive brain & started to develop some bumps at front (nuclei start to develop) 7 weeks Forebrain is starting to get larger & by 9 weeks it getting bigger & starts folding upon itself back (cover rest of brain) At birth Neo-cortex cover everything (except cerebellum) and starts to move forward to front Neo-cortex is not smooth it has mountains & valleys) - Neo-Cortex is the newest structure most powerful begins @ most anterior part of brain - Generally MacLeans theory Triune : 3 basic component to the Human brain(3 brains in 1) o 1 oldest reptilian brain brain stem to thalamus breath, heart rate, defend territory, sexual reproduction basic for survival back to reptiles & still exists in human o 2 old mammalian brain (Paleo-mammalian brain) limbic system : add ability to be emotional (more complex in humans ) still exists in human o 3 Neo-mammalian brain process higher intellectual functioning e.g. problem solving skills, language been added to the older parts of brain - In terms of clinician think of stroke: if a person comes in w/ stroke in Cerebral cortex, better call therapist if it is in the midbrain, better call ambulance if it is the brain stem (reptilian brain) , better call morgue (they are not going to live) PSYB65L ECTURE 02:C EREBRAL C ORTEX CEREBRAL CORTEX - in greater detail divided into lobes Not smooth surface in humans try to add on cells (evolution pressure) move back & fold (groves) mountains & valleys gives boundaries o Valley called sulcus/ sulci o Mountain called gyrus/gyri - Top of brain 2 side of brain is not connected directly is connected by board fibre pathway called Corpus Callosum Divided into 2 hemisphere : o Right : control left side of body & gets info from this side as well 3 o Left : control right side of body & gets info from this side as well o It connects in analogs portion to each side e.g. anterior side is connected to other side of anterior part - 3 main fissures ( when sulci gets really deep called fissure) o Longitudinal Fissure right down the middle separate right & left hemisphere o Central Sulcus / Fissure on each hemisphere it separates anterior & Posterior portion (Frontal & Parietal) Precentral Gyrus posterior frontal lobe Postcentral Gyrus anterior Parietal Lobe o Sylvian/ Lateral Fissure separates lobes at the bottom beneath the fissure is the Temporal Lobe - Cerebral cortex is sub divided into lobes: 4 of them diff parts have diff functions: o Frontal Lobe at the front o Parietal Lobe behind the frontal lobe / behind the Central Sulcus o Occipital Lobe at the very back of head/brain o Temporal Lobe is the portion below the Sylvian Fissure - Each lobe has primary function Primary Cortex (that deals w/ primary function of lobe) & Associational Cortex o Primary Cortex primary receptive area either it is getting input from sensory modality (e.g. skin) / if it is the motor cortex (motor output) o Associational cortex surrounds/ beside the Primary cortex & deals w/ greater computing part of processing ( e.g. it not just getting info from the eye its puts info together to make some sense) means most recent in evolution most evolved animals have great
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