PSYC12H3S Lecture 6
Experiencing Prejudice I
What’s it like to be a target?
-Video: A girl looking at dolls.
-This video is mirrored with Keith Clarke and his wife scientific view of showing that there is this
difference of black and white dolls on children. They categorize bad and good dolls on the basis of color.
-Evidence to try to understand the victim of prejudice judgment.
Change of Perspective
-A picture of Matthew Sheppard, he was young gay man. He was found tied to a gate. What happened is
he went to a gay bar and two men went to the bar also acting like they r gay. These men wanted to make
problems. They met Matthew and they brought him to their house with his permission. They then beat
him up and smashed his head with the back of a pistol and tied him up to the fence. These men did all this
intentionally and motivated by hate. Because of this incident they changed the law.
The Laramie Project: Is a play based on the story of Matthew Sheppard. The reason we r talking about
this story is bc we already looked at the perception of the perceiver and not the target’s view point of
Let’s look at the target’s point of view
Up until now, discussed perceiver’s point of view
How do stereotypes emerge?
How are stereotyped maintained?
Who is most likely to be prejudiced?
How has prejudice changed over time?
What are the effects of prejudice?
How do people cope with it?
“The lion’s story will never be told as long as the hunter is telling the story”
Possession of a trait/characteristic that is devalued by society
Stigmatized have “spoiled identity”
Are discriminated against
Types of stigma (Goffman, 1963):
(a) Abominations of body
(b) Blemishes of character
(c) Tribal markers
-Goffman wrote about a book called stigma. Stigma can be a spoiled identity in a sense that they r
somehow degraded, ppl discriminate ppl who got these characteristics.
-Abomination of body: Obesity or ppl that look different example mouth deformity. A lot of sweaty
armpits and the person can feel embarrassing bc ppl noticeable.
-Blemishes of character: Dementia, mental illness, bulimia or any kind of personality trait.
-Tribal markers: Any marker of Religion, age, race, gender..etc. Set u off as being from one tribe. -Are males the new targets? There is an article male complaining about discrimination made towards
them. The men r reacting to subliminal action (ppl placed in a category). Some men want to work in a
“female” job and they end up getting discriminated bc of what they want.
A Model of Stigma Reactions
Major & O’Brien, 2005
Collective Representations: culture, meta-stereotype
Situational Cues: Cues communicating stigma relevance
Personal: Individual differences in perception & appraisal
Threat Appraisal: Is Stigma relevant? Am I threatened?
Involuntary responses: anxiety, disruption, vigilance
Voluntary responses: Coping with threat, blaming discrimination, limit social comparisons,
Outcomes: Self-esteem, performance, health
-This model is stretching out the psychology of what is like to belong to a stigmatized group.
-In the Figure 1: A,B,C moderate whether someone is making identity, threat and appraisal. Ppl saying
that they r being discriminated. Collective representation: culture placement of who u r and where u r in
the world, example living in Jamaica and u r black the stereotype about ur group can be different from an
African black person who lives in Africa.. Situational cues: what is the immediate cues around u, that
make u, r u the way u r bc of ur environment. Personal characteristics: what is the person is like that is
being discriminated example is she or he have low self-esteem. When u r threatened; U either go in one of
these directions: D,F: Non-volitional responses: Like a stress response, hearts being faster and
psychological questioning. Volitional responses: Coding with the situation, u have the ability to control
one’s own mind. Then u have outcomes can be anything based on ur stress and code response to that
stress response. -Meta-stereotype: ppl have about other’s ppl stereotypes, u r aware of their stereotypes. Situational Cues:
the size of the room, ur location basically where r u. Personal: what u r like and how u r affects u. Stigma
can affect ur physical and mental health.
-How do Muslims cope at the airport? In our times terrorism is known towards them. If u have physical
cues (what u wearing) makes u Muslim like hijab and beard. The Muslim man at the airport looked like
he was uncomfortable being in the situation. A: He is in Toronto, culture where his group is derogated. B:
He is at the airport and ppl will ask questions and stereotypes. C: He is a marker of his faith and identify
with his group. D: happens and the E: heart beating and nervous. F: He stood still and waited with effort.
G: worried and stressed coming to surface. These things are the origin that makes the person questions if
they r being stereotypes. Just bc u made identity thereat appraisal does not mean that bad things will
-Video: A child named Sandra at her desk and Raymond. The teacher tells the students that blue-eyed ppl
r better and smarter than brown eyed ppl. Raymond who has blue eyes says that he felt superior and
happy bc of what the teacher said. Sandra is a brown-eyed girl. This little town where they live in,
prejudice and discrimination r being taught to the children to make them ready for the world as they grow
and show them what ppl thing of them at the same time teach them it is not good to discriminate who
them how it feels.
-It shows how easy we can become groupie in a moment of time.
Stigma’s Self-Protective Properties
Stigma & Self-Esteem
Stigmatized are disadvantaged economically & interpersonally
Stigma should lead to lower self-esteem, right?
Stigmatized have the same or higher (!) SE than non-stigmatized
-For certain groups stigma does not always lead u to what u expect them to be, example African
American r known to be degraded and lower by the society. The fact the person sees himself the way ppl
view them. Self-fulfilling prophecies plays also a big part of what we r categorized as. Self-esteem of
African American do not really have low self esteem. Why is that? Stigma can buffer self-esteem.
Crocker & Major, 1989
Stigma can buffer self-esteem
Story of how I became “stigmatized” for protection
3 effects of stigma: attributional ambiguity, disidentification, & ingroup comparisons
1. Attributional Ambiguity
Blame discrimination vs. blaming self
Discount negative feedback
Disengage self-esteem from stereotyped domain
Value dimensions where in-group fares well
3. In-group comparisons
Limit comparisons to in-group members
Avoid painful comparisons -Stigma sometimes does not make u feel low.
-Teacher went to look for a job and his advisor told him that he will get any job he wants and will get it bc
he is very smart and such. So teacher went to apply and no one chose him at all for a job. So he realized
that he would not picked and felt low. So the advisor told him that u r not part of the group. He knew that
he was not the right gender and race of the job. He coped with his mind about stress and convinced
himself the reason for not having the jobs is bc he is different and cannot control where he is fro