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Lecture 7

PSYC14H3 Lecture 7: PSYC14 LECTURE 07

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Nicholas Hobson

LECTURE 07: COGNITION AND PERCEPTION Used to diagnose thought disorder if people wrote evil/sinister thing they saw in these pictures it showed clues of a mental disorder Researchers who used this noticed that there are systematic differences Easterners saw the whole image Westerners see parts IS IT ALL ABOUT THE PERSON? OR THE SITUATION (CULTURE)? OR BOTH? **it’s both!! - There is a subdiscipline between the 2 o Social vs. personality psychologist ▪ Social Psychologist • Situation has a huge influence on predicting behavior ▪ Personality Psychologist • Big 5 • Temperament • Traits WALTER MISCHEL - Known from popular culture - The Marshmallow test o Powerful test of their outcome on life later on - Poor self control of the child = poor self control of adolescent in school - Is it the person’s personality or situation that predicts the behavior? IF…THEN…PROFILES MEANINGFUL PATTERNS OF VARIABILITY Study about a child’s summer camp - Naturalistic observation - Observed children interacting - Recorded/coded the behaviors that children were engaging in by a 3-4 month period VERBAL AGGRESSION - Higher = more verbal aggression - Lower = less verbal aggression - X axis = situations that provoked the aggression or not 2 observations of the same: child #28 - verbally aggressing when the peer approaches them - Goes down when the peer teases them - They follow a similar pattern Child #9 - Profile stability is higher when they are more similar Interpersonal difference are important to consider because different children would differ in how they react in a situation Situation behavior profiles OR behavior signatures - Depending on the situation it can predict the behavior **IF the child is in the situation THEN this happens Features of IF-THEN profiles invite questions about a person’s construals of situations, motivations, goals and expectation COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE UNITS (CAUs) - Categories/constructs - Expectations/beliefs - Emotions - Goals - Competencies/self-regulatory plans COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE PROCESSING SYSTEM (CAPS) CAUs operate within an interconnected network To ultimately predict behavior different pathways become activated in relation to features of the situations SYSTEM - How does it fit in the grander scheme in a person as a whole - FEATURES OF THE SITUATION: very different features that feed into your mind (CAUs) and it predicts our behavior CULTURAL COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE PROCESSING SYSTEM (C-CAPS) Select to attend to certain features based on where you were born different socialization you receive from your country, parents, community attached a broader level CULTURE - NOMINAL: based on where you are, what you do in a role may differ o Worker in China is different from a worker in Chile - PHYSICAL CULTURE: rights and practices - SUBJECTIVE CULTUE: how you feel about yourself in this culture - Features of culture feed into features of situations than CAUs and then “if then profiles” WHAT ARE THESE CA UNITS? WHICH ONES ARE TURN ON? LOOKING INWARD…. - What is actually happening when the situation is upon us? - What do we do with the info we collect? CULTURE IS “OUT THERE” AND “IN THE HEAD” - BASIC PHYSICAL REALITY o What objects do we “see”? o What do we physically see and how does that differ based on our culture - FIELD RECOGNITION o What are we attending to? ▪ Spotlight attention ▪ Filters that we can only attend to certain things - EPISTEMIC MOTIVES AND UNDERSTANDING o How do we understand? o What do we do after we have this information? o What we understand and how we reason - ATTRIBUTIONS AND APPRAISALS o What do we do with this processed info? - BEHAVIORS AND MOTIVATIONS o How do we express and communicate? o How do we relate to others? WHAT OBJECTS DO WE “SEE” MULLER-LYER ILLUSION AND THE “CARPENTERED HYPOTHESIS” (line experiment) - We would perceive the middle line as longer than the other 2 - Simple optical illusion Thought to be universal that everybody was susceptible to this optical illusion - Suggested that the carpenter hypothesis went to certain hunter-gatherer cultures where there is no exposure to technology in any source o Those who were exposed to those situations were not susceptible to the illusion - Most people live in carpentered worlds NOT in the natural world o We live in buildings that are constructed and manufactured o We are susceptible to seeing angles in the world and that is why we fall for the illusion - Those who live in the natural world they don’t see the straight edges or lines and in result aren’t susceptible to these illusions WHAT INFORMATION DO WE ATTEND TO? FIELD DEPENDENCE VS FIELD INDEPENDENCE FIELD INDEPENDENCE: the idea that we can separate objects that are usually in the focal point of the picture (ignore the background) FIELD DEPENDENCE: difficulty separating the central foreground picture from the background figures (attend to everything at once) Rod and frame task - Play around with the angle of the rod and the square and ask people is it perfectly pointing down or to the left or right - The frame pulls your eye that tells your mind that line is crooked - If you see it as crooked; you have some field dependence (Eastern) o Frame is impacting the judgement of the line - If you see the line as straight, you are exhibiting field independence (Western) Masuda, Ellsworth et al. - Differences between Japanese and Americans - Where is the eye gaze fixing o Better or worse memories - Picture: of children where the central figure and background figures are showing different emotions o They showed them these pictures and had eye tracking (rapid eye movement and proxy attention) - Wanted to see whats the difference between American and Japanese looking at central figure vs the background figure - Hypothesized that theres a difference between how quickly they go from central figure to the whole picture o They also looked at how quickly they were to identify the
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