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Lecture 02

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Michelle Hilscher

PSYC18 Lecture 02 nd Midterm is on June 22 Plato (429 347 BCE) He though there are 3 parts to the soul: sensible vs. intelligible distinction is maintained o Reason abstract thinking, cognition is located in head & is also imprisoned there since the head is not part of the body Its function is to think especially about moral treamentthis is ideal and pure (not part of body) its immortal o Passion - its function is motivation, urging us to do things Its the source of complex emotions & involved in courage (urging to do things) Located in the digestive system o Appetite most basic part of our soul Is immoral involved w affection & sensuality (pleasure) Located in the belly urge sex, hedonism, hunger etc. He thought we are born w a knowledge base as everyone els Theory of Form o This knowledge is genuine & called Episteme - its abstract ideas that doesnt change & is eternal Is the reason part of soul that comes to next life - doesnt die w the body Since we are born w all the knowledge we need we just need education to rekindle that already existing knowledge ( about reasoning, abstract thinking) o All we have to is unlock & utilize this inbuilt knowledge o Thus, Trying to gather info about world from experience is wro this knowledge is known as Doxa Info from sensory This info gives poor copy of genuine knowledge your born w & is imperf thus, NOT USEFUL o Tell us to override the body & only rely on abstract reason IGNORE EMOTIONS Aristotle (384 322 BCE) He is Platos student & staunch critic Also Proposed 3 psyches: o Nutritive basic psyches Called plant soul allows to reproduce, nutrient, allowing for growth o Sensitive Intermediary function belong to animal & accomplish the same function as Nutritive part but could do more complex function - Sensation (awareness) , emotion o Rational human soul could do the function as the 2 psyche above but could do more complicate functions that Sophisticated function such as abstract thinking, deliberation, to engage in complex memory recall, abstract principles , synthesizes experience Overall as these psyche gets more complicated it allows for more complicated behaviourfunction Sensitive psyche is not complex enough to reason it is here the emotions resides in but it is unchecked o E.g. emotions is unchecked in animals since they only have sensitive psyche which cannot reason w emotion to control them The IDEAL is the RATIONAL soul since emotion and reason exist together & via reasoning the emotions could be controlled o Thus, reasoning is valued over emotion Rational soul is more complex than other ones & complexity is a used as index for value More complex = more useful valued Thought we are NOT born w knowledge based Tabula Rasa the mind is a blank slate o There are no innate universals & knowledge change across time thus, need sensory info emotional experiences to attain knowledge, grow & develop yourself, learn about the world around and the universe Sensory functions like the universe He though emotion doesnt just happen to use - it depends on evaluation cognition leads to emotion
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