Class Notes (836,147)
Canada (509,656)
Psychology (7,782)
PSYC18H3 (334)
Lecture 8

LECTURE 8.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Gerald Cupchik

LECTURE 8 Roseman’s Cognitive Structural Theory - There are 14 emotions and 5 ways of appraising events 1. Situational state: are events encountered in a particular situation consistent or inconsistent with one‟s motives? a. Consistency leads to positive emotions b. Inconsistency leads to negative emotions c. I feel good when situation is beneficial but it depends on my needs 2. Probability: how certain are you about a certain outcome occurring? a. Certainty -> joy, sadness or disgust b. Uncertainty -> fear or hope 3. Agency: who is responsible for events in a situation? a. Self caused -> guilt b. Other caused -> anger c. Circumstances beyond one’s control -> sadness 4. Motivational state: do events one encounter involve obtaining a reward or avoiding punishment? (Appetitive vs. Aversive motivation) a. Obtain reward -> joy b. Avoid punishment -> relief c. Neurological model of extrovert and introvert: introvert reaction and inhibition builds up slowly and goes down fast. Extrovert reaction and inhibition builds up fast and goes down slow d. Behavioural: extrovert respond do reward, introvert respond to fear of punishment 5. Power: perceive oneself as weak or strong in situation? a. Weak -> fear b. Strong -> frustration/anger The Social Constructionist Perspective – Jim Averill - Emotions are “products” of cultures. The ways that emotions are embodied in a culture‟s social practices, including its language, participates in and partially constitutes the moral order of the culture and serves to maintain it. - Averill sees emotions as a special kind of “social role”. - Emotions are a “socially constructed syndrome” that includes an individual‟s appraisal of the situation which is interpreted as a passion rather than as an action. o We should think of emotions as actions because we perform them. In other words, we play a role in emotional episodes. E.g. there can be a performance aspect (aside from spontaneous aspect) of emotion like when a kid throws a temper tantrum when parents do not buy candy for them. - Emotions are seen as good or evil in the world in the beginning; then in 1500s, personal agency emerged - Then came the social construction – I construct my world and I make choices in my world. - Certain cultures will overemphasize emotions, others will underemphasize emotions - Different cultures can have diff emotional understandings of the world - Communities “control” us by determining what the norm is. When you do things differently, you might feel guilt. These “guilt seeds” maintain our unity - Society needs to maintain social order thru language and certain values. When we internalize these values, emotions are sort of connected to these values as well. E.g. when you deviate from the norm, you feel guilt - Averill says that emotion is experienced as an action because we play an active role in creating situations that are then experienced emotionally. - He also says that emotion is experienced as a passion because when we experience emotions we often ignore our active role in having created them and feel overwhelmed and taken over by them. We feel like we have lost control. - Syndrome: set of events that occur together in systematic fashion - Components that tend to occur together to create emotional experience: o A. Subjective experiences: particular feeling qualities associated with emotion o B. Expressive reactions: facial expressions and bodily postures that accompany an emotion o C. Patterns of physiological response: autonomic nervous system and other changes o D. Coping reactions: behaviour we engage in while we are emotional o The more you show it in your face, the less you‟ll burn inside - Note: 1. Not every emotion is associated with all components a. E.g. Fear = yes, Hope = no (fear has bodily and cognitive component, hope only has cognitive) 2. Not every instance of a particular emotion need include all components a. E.g. anger with or without facial expression like a scowl b. There‟s no single response or subset of responses which is essential to an emotional syndrome c. Emotional syndromes are “polythetic” or not definable in terms of limited # of characteristics - Emotions are “transitory social roles” o A role is a socially prescribed set of responses to be followed by a person in a given situation o Emotions as social roles: temp. enactment of prescribed set or responses in which a person may be seen as following a set of rules that tell him or her the “proper” way to appraise a situation, how to behave in response to the appraisal, how to interpret his or her bodily reactions to the appraisal and so on. - The rules of emotions are learned o We learn from our society the sets of rules that implicitly govern our emotional performances. o This approach emerges from the social constructionist perspective of the 1970s which focused more on the social self than the personal self. o Emotions are associated with attitudes, beliefs, judgments, and desires reflecting the cultural values of particular communities. o So appraisals are not seen as innate responses to evolutionarily significant events. o Emotions reflect moral judgments about events in the world - Emotions used to be referred to as “passions”, word that implies experience of passivity as if emotions were alien forces which overcome and possess and individual. E.g. “gripped” by fear, “seized” by anger - According to Frijda, the experience of passivity is part of what it means to be emotional in our culture - But Averill‟s approach to emotion is primarily metaphorical. He sees emotions as ACTIONS rather than passions. - Emotional behaviour is engaged in to realize particular social and individual goals. - Emotions don‟t just happen to us but they are things we do willfully and take responsibility in involvement - The experience of emotions as passive passions is an interpretation or attribution we make about our own behaviour. We thereby disclaim responsibility for what we do when we are emotional. - Social functions of emotions: o Fear can be seen as one of the means by which social norms are maintained in the regulation of social behaviour. o We can compare the emotional lexicons of different cultures to get a sense for which emotions are important in that culture. (e.g., absence of fear in a warrior culture) o The acquisition of a culturally appropriate lexicon by children is central to the socialization of emotion and is a major determinant of changes in children‟s experiences of emotion Reaction model of emotion - Cannon assumed that the cerebral cortex constantly inhibits emotional expressions that are integrated in the thalamus. Perception of an emotion evoking situation produces cortical disinhibition and frees the thalamic centres from their normal restraint. - When disinhibition occurs, the emotional expression automatically appears. Incoming sensory impulses from the viscera and skeletal muscles arrive at the thalamus and are relayed to the c
More Less

Related notes for PSYC18H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.