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PSYC18 C12 .docx

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PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Chapter 12 – Emotions and Mental Health in Childhood Emotions and Disorders Emotional disorders involve the extremes of emotion. Classifying childhood disorders: Clinical psychology is concerned with this. DSM is main scheme to diagnose psychiatric problems. There are no sharp distinctions between having and not having a disorder – always a continuum. Assessments can also be used – checklists, questionnaires, etc. Two important disorders in childhood: 1) Externalizing Disorders (ED) – anger, hostility, aggression, stealing, & lying - Oppositional Defiant Disorder  >6 months of displaying 4 or more behaviours leading to impaired school/social life. - Conduct Disorder  >6 months of displaying 4 or more behaviours leading to impaired school/social life as well as truanting <13, stealing, fire-setting, assault, fights, cruelty, weapons. - Behaviours include: temper, argues, annoys, defies, blames others, touchy, angry & spiteful. 2) Internalizing Disorders (ID) – anxiety & depression, with tendencies to withdraw - Anxiety  fears abnormal in intensity, duration, and how elicited. o Overanxious disorder – excessive/unrealistic anxiety o Separation anxiety disorder – excessive anxiety about separation from attachment figures - Depression  low mood, or no interest for at least 2 weeks. Must have 4 other changes from weight, sleep, fatigue, worthlessness, concentration, or suicidal thoughts. Can continue to adulthood, and become comorbid with other disorders. Both emotional disorders & personality traits are aggregates of behaviour/experience, and affect life over long period/lifetime. Predominance of one emotion system: In childhood emotional disorders, one emotion becomes prominent (e.g. depression  sadness).  Feeling is biased towards pre-established pattern of prominent emotion of disorder.  Appraisal biases also occur – e.g. how kid attributes situations.  Affects temperament – in externalizing disorder, child thinks aggression enhances self-esteem. Inappropriate emotional responses: Disorder causes deviant emotional response in reaction to events (e.g. laughing at someone’s distress)  Unusual elicitation of emotions. Dysregulation: Emotions are not properly regulated – inappropriate to social context.  E.g. Lack of effortful control in externalizing disorders. Prevalence of Disorders in Childhood Psychiatric Epidemiology  study of how many people show particular disorder in population.  Prevalence – proportion population suffering from disorder over particular time period.  Incidence – number of new onsets/given time. Median rates for child psychiatric disorders = 8% preschoolers,12% preadolescents, 15% adolescents In diagnoses:  Children more in touch with their fear/anxieties  Parents more in touch with child’s externalizing behaviours Reliability of child as respondent increases with age. Externalizing Disorders: Young children show more externalizing than internalizing behaviours.  Oppositional Defiant Disorder is more common early in childhood, but...  Conduct Disorder becomes more common later. - May come from increased opportunity for antisocial behaviour. - Overall – aggression, property violations, and opposition decrease between ages 4 – 8, while status violations (swearing, truancy, etc.) increase.  Boys show more externalizing disorders, and decline these behaviours much less than girls. - ~ 3:1 male-female ratio. Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence increases with age during childhood (constant between childhood & adolescence).  The forms they take also change  separation anxiety more common in early childhood, while overanxious disorder more common adolescence.  Affects girls more.  Not uncommon to have >1 anxiety disorder, and often comorbid with depression (69% in adolesce.) Depressive Disorders: Low mood & depression increases with age – adolescents have lower general mood than preadolescent.  Rates increase dramatically in adolescence (as much as 10X).  Boys & girls equally likely in childhood; girls twice as likely during adolescence. - Socialization (sadness more acceptable in girls) & genetics (major) play role. Bowlby  theory of attachment – “growing up w/o mother results in child developing into sociopath” st Rutter  how to interview families to understand emotional characteristics, & 1 large epidemiological study of childhood disorders. The Stress-Diathesis Hypothesis Stress – something that occurs in environment Diathesis – predisposition/vulnerability to disorder that is inherent in child (perhaps genetic).  Interaction effect  stress occurring in child with a particular diathesis can cause a disorder. - Explains how when parents of two siblings die, one can suffer emotional disorder due to loss while the other may not. Risks: Risk  stresses in environment that increase likelihood a child will develop a disorder. Conflict between parents – increases risk for externalizing disorder in children; over hostility (parents shouting) was largest association – occurs even after divorce.  Children increase aggressive behaviour after witnessing adults angrily arguing (overt hostility). - freq/severity of arguments associated with ↑children’s disorders Witnessing negative emotions ↑risk of developing externalizing behaviour through:  modelling  becoming more aroused by anger  altering child’s expectations about relationships Parent’s Psychiatric Problems: ↑risk of child disorder – often show similar disorder to parent, e.g. children with depressed parents tend to have more IDs – internalizing disorders (i.e. depression).  Antisocial parents  ↑risk for externalizing disorders.  Infants show patterns of responding (induced by parents) that they carry into new interactions. Depressed mother  ↑likelihood of insecure attachment development of child.  It also wins respite from anger of other family members.  When angry at mother, it temporarily suppresses her depressed mood.  Child learns  sadness stops other’s anger & getting angry activates others  More critical of children – teaches them ↑negative appraisal of things. Attachment Failures: The attachment styles (secure, avoidant, ambivalent) have not been found to pose risk/benefit for emotional disorder.  Only disoriented/disorganized style predicts subsequent disorders  Children exposed to multiple risks of poverty  71% who developed hostility at age 5 were classified as disoriented/disorganiz
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