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PSYC31H3 (68)
Lecture 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC31H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
Cortical Dementias Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type (DAT) – most common type Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) Dementia with Lewy bodies Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type Starting point: medial temporal lobes • The hippocampus is affected very early on  one of the earliest symptoms is memory loss End point: all across the cortical (frontal lobes) • Leads to atrophy of the brain Neurofibrillary tangles (breakdown of neurofibrillary components within the cell, usually responsible for taking information from the soma to the synapse) and beta-amyloid plaques (these are outside of the cell) Cannot diagnose this entirely before a person is dead – many dementias seem similar so you actually need to see post-mortem to make sure it’s actually Alzheimer’s Meta-Analysis (DAT) Meta-analytic review of structural and functional imaging studies Goes from hippocampus temporal lobes to occipital to parietal and then to frontal lobes • Memory is affected then language then vision problems then apraxia then executive functions Frontotemporal Dementia Slow onset/progression • Starts in frontal lobe (sometimes in temporal too) Changes in social behaviour, personality, speech as the frontal lobe is affected Dementia with Lewy Bodies Second most common dementia – 1/5 of dementias Progressive impairment – depending on where they start, they determine what kind of damage is done. Presents with extrapyramidal signs – motor issues • Lewy bodies are associated with Parkinson’s and • You can trigger this in schizophrenics with the use of antipsychotics. These drugs target the dopamine system because schizophrenics are thought to have too much dopamine o However, when they take away too much dopamine, the systems that need the dopamine are affected – resulting in extrapyramidal signs Hallucinations, delusions – this is not seen in Alzheimer’s Subcortical Dementias Cognitive slowing – takes them longer to perform tasks, processing takes longer Declines in attentional processes Retrieval is greater than encoding. • They are able to learn to an extent. However, they can pull up more memories than they are able to be taught Typically does not present with aphasia, apraxia, and/or agnosia • These only occur when you get the cortex involved. This type of dementia does not involve the cortex Parkinson’s disease Disorder of movement • Tremors (seems like vibrating), decreased force • Shuffled gait, masked face (does not display much emotion, deadpan expression) o The lack of expression could also be depression though Substantia nigra is affected – the center of dopamine production  cell death Huntington’s disease Hereditary condition (you have 50% of getting it if your pare
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