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PSYC35 - Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

PSYC35 - Lecture 4 Personality structure Monolithic – variable centered, focused on the laws how it is that variables correlate together in a population, how all traits co-occur to make someone extraverted factor analyses –searches for traits take a large number of observed variables and reduce them to a small number of underlying factor, it s the one in which we search for traits - column – variable, row – replication (person) - goal is to find the variables that cluster together Idiographic approach ( focused on the individual) person centered - the configuration of attributes within a single individual - personality type, a configuration of traits within an individual - inverse factor analyses – searches for types, transposed, - rows – variables, columns – replication (people) - looking for clusters of people that have the same pattern, similar configurations of personality traits – concept – personality type Personality Type - Jack Block - interested in two broad dimensions  ego control,  ego resiliency Ego control – expresses and containment of impulses and behaviour, restraint of those impulses is what makes us different Those who are high, tend to constrain, people low, tend to act out. some are restricted, some are not. Do you act on your impulses or do you restrain them Ego resiliency – the capacity we each have to alter our typical level of ego control. we differ in how much we can change our typical level of ego control. some can turn their ego control off, some cannot. E.g. high ego control during the work week, low ego control during the weekend Q-sort – a list of 100 statements, with respect of yourself or someone else you have to say how much that statement represents you, you’ve got 9 bins from least to very representative of you, must force these 100 items into a normal distribution - rich description of what an individual is like - there are types of people in the data 5 different types of people - but really three are best - Undercontrolled – low in ec and low in er, they act out and can’t change in different situations. - high on n, low on c and a, vulnerable to externalizing problems (criminal) - overcontrolled – high in ec and low in er, they are very restricted in impulses don’t act out, but can’t turn ec, they’re over controlled everywhere - high on n, low on e, withdrawn focused on themselves, vulnerable to internalizing problems (depression) - resilient – moderate ec and high er, they can contain an impulse, and have resilience to change they ec depending on the environment/situation - low on n, high on e, a , c, o, all socially desirable characteristics - these are called the ARC TYPES Question 1 Do ARC types represent the optimal cluster structure in Big Five data? Are the ARC types discrete or fuzzy? Is there a spectrum of prototypicality? - a lot on low, a lot on high, ‘two groups’ discrete when within group variation is small and between group variation is high - In spectrum you can’t really split in into groups, badly defined categories, so we aren’t typed or not, which of these three types better describes you, how well does each of these three types describe you. to what extent are you typed by each of these types. To what
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