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PSYC37H3 (113)


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Anthony C Ruocco

PSYC37 TEXTBOOK NOTESCHAPTER 1 The babys first test conducted immediately after birth is the Apgar test to assess HR respiration muscle tone reflex irritability and colour Psychometrician specialist in psych or education who develops and evaluates psych tests Test is a standardized procedure for sampling behaviour and describing it with categories or scores Most test have the following features standardized procedure behaviour sample scores or categories norms or standards and predication of nontest behaviourCriterionreferenced tests tests that measure what a person can do rather than comparing results to the performance levels of others Test items do not have to resemble the behaviours that the test is attempting to predictimplicit assumption of the psychometric viewpoint is that tests measure individual differences in traits or characteristics that exist in some vague sense of the world Everyone is assumed to possess the trait being measured but in different amounts error observed scoretrue score errornorm a summary of test results for a large and representative group of subjects Norm group is referred to as the standardization sampleultimate purpose of a test is to predict additional behaviours other than those directly sampled by the test normreferenced test the performance of each examinee is interpreted in reference to a relevant standardization samplecriterionreferenced test the objective is to determine where the examinee stands with respect to very tightly defined educational objectives Can be meaningfully interpreted without reference to normsassessment appraising or estimating the magnitude of one or more attributes in a person Refers to an entire process of compiling info about a person and using it to make inferences about characteristics and to predict behaviour Examiner must compare and combine data from different sourcestests represent only one source of info used in the assessment process group tests large paperpencil measures suitable to the testings of large groups of persons at the same timeindividual tests instruments that by their design and purpose must be administered one on one The examine can gauge the level of motivation of the subject and assess the relevance of other factors on the test resultsTable 11 pg 7Intelligence test were designed to sample a broad assortment of skills in order to estimate the individuals general intellectual levelIntelligence test refers to a test that yields an overall summary score based on results from a heterogeneous sample of items Aptitude tests measure one or more clearly defined and relatively homogenous segments of ability Often used to predict success in an occupation training course or further education Achievement tests measure a persons degree of learning success or accomplishment in a subject matter Used to determine how much material the subject has absorbed Creativity test assess a subjects ability to produce new ideas insights or artistic creations that are accepted as being of social aesthetic or scientific value Emphasize novelty and originality Personality tests measure the traits qualities or behaviours that determine a persons individuality helps predict future behaviour Interest inventories measure an individuals preference for certain activities or topics and thereby help determine occupational choiceBehaviour is best understood in terms of clearly defined characteristics such as frequency duration antecendents and consequences Neuropsychological tests are used in the assessment of persons with known or suspected brain dysfunction Five uses of tests classification diagnosis and treatment planning selfknowledge program evaluation and research Classification assigning a person to one category rather than anotherPlacement sorting of persons into different programs appropriate to their needs or skills Screening quick and simple tests or procedures to identify persons who might have special characteristics or needs Sometimes result in many misclassifications therefore examiners are advised to do followup testingCertification have a passfail quality Diagnosis determining the nature and source of a persons abnormal behaviour and classifying the behaviour pattern within an accepted diagnostic system Diagnosis is a precursor to remediation or treatment of personal distress or impaired performance A proper diagnosis conveys info about strengths weaknesses etiology and best choices for treatmentFactors that influence the soundness of testing the manner of administration the characteristics of the tester the context of the testing the motivation and experience of the examinee and the method of scoringStandardized testing procedures are normally essential there are instances in which flexibility in procedures is desirable or even necessary Eg Examining person with disabilities
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