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University of Toronto Scarborough
Suzanne Erb

Lecture 2 Notes-Principles of Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics 13:54 We are up to chapter 3 now. Dose-Response factors: The most important factors that determine a drugs effects is the concentration of the drug and its rate of absorption. Dose is the quantity of drug that is administered at one time. The greater the body weight of the subject, the greater the drug amount needed to achieve the same effect as on a normal person. One never sees a perfect linear relationship between the dose of a drug and a particular response. When you have a less linear function you will see a more sigmoidal function. Some species are much more sensitive to small concentrations of a drug such as rats. It could also be that the drug may have different effects on different species. Drug actions tend to be active longer in infants and the elderly because the metabolize drugs at a much slower rate. The threshold dose is the minimum amount of the drug required to produce any desired effect of the drug. The maximal effect is the minimum dose of the drug required to exhibit the maximum effect of the drug. ED50- the dose that produces the desired pharmacological effect is 50% of the individuals. LD50- a dose that if administered, would have lethal effects. Generally, you want the LD50 dose-response function to be significantly different; or way to the right on the x-axis. Why might it be the case that you wouldnt administer the maximal dose of the drug? didnt hear the answer. Efficacy relates to the maximal effect. What is the maximal effect of the drug and how does that maximal effects compare to other drugs. Potency- how little of the drug, relative to another, is required to achieve the desired effect. Antagonism- the reduced effect of one drug in the presence of another Synergism- the greater effect produced by two drugs administered together. Pharmacodynamics are the physiological effects of the drug Pharmacokinetics- what does the body do the drugs for them to have an effect on biological systems. Absorption- entry of drug in to the blood system Distribution- the drugs gaining access to its binding sites Metabolism- the processes involved in breaking down the drug; a lot of drugs are actually metabolized before they reach their binding sites. Excretion- disposal of the drug from the system. If there is no drug present in the blood then at the site of injection of absorption the drug will be absorbed at a much higher rate than if there is a drug already present.
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