Thursday October 29, 2013
HISTORY – Lecture 7
- What is science?
- When we do our data collection, we don’t want our biases sneak in. that is
why we do double blind
- Whenever you make a commitment to a certain method, you are not doing
- In science, do an experimental paradigm. A methodological procedure. Have
a whole set of possibilities that you may not know of.
- We have theories, methods etc.
- How do we go to the next and do paradigm change and do something new
- All these methods have to be seen in relationship to the lived world.
- We have the lived world down here and we are looking down at the world:
how do we want it to be meaningful?
- Science attemps to bring a number of multiple analysis together. If you don’t
have separate levels of analysis, you are not doing science.
- Ex. The black plague: or SARS. Have an epidemic of some kind. Take the
epidemic at the biological level and see whats going on the biological level.
o Even within the biological level you have levels
o Take physiological level of analysis and turn it into epidemiology level
o There are many layers of science
o Biological, social, and personal (our world) – there are multiple levels
o If you stay in one world, then become isolated
- Sceince is an analysis of process. Where was Aristotle on this issue? The
professors get locked into mini levels of specialization
o Diff bw Aristotle and plato – plato : eastern view. Aristotle wasn’t
dealing with entitites but modes of responding. Took a diff view. Has
three levels: on slide.
o Soul for Aristotle meant the mind +
o Nutritive: body has needs: hunger, sexual etc. we are all animals. Then
we have affect: has a wish attached to it. An awareness of. And then
have a hierarchy, the top is the emotions. We have the boldiy self, ?
self, and at the end, social self.
o Self: coherence amongst these levels
- Plato: deduction: certain premises that are true and then have consequences.
Start from the abstract and go to concrete
o Induction: go from concrete facts and go upto fact
Looking at the world and from the world, looking at your
Aristotle emphasizes this! o Our goal is to understand scientific process: how do things affect each
- Each class of event has its characteristic way of behaving:
o Essences: essentialist analysis
o Facts upto abstractions = induction
- Circular reasoning
o He was looking at qualities, not quantities.
o But its not causal: how did the quality get there, and why is the quality
o Tetology: ex. ‘ can I borrow the car, no, why, bcs I said so’
- Aristolian idea: its already decided if ur going to hell or heaven.
- Sensations: things have essences and are unwinding in a certain direction.
These are 2 pnts of Aristotle.
o Essentialist attitude, self prophesizing ex of the child
o Saying something is inside of them and it governs them.
o Not a lot of degrees of freedoms to change
o Can think like this about yourself
Ex saying you’re a bad person vs bad behaviour. The first
means you’ve essentialized yourself.
An essentialist analysis takes a look at process and reduces it
to a particular label and its not changing.
Take responsibility for behaviour but don’t trap self in it
In aristotilian viewpnt, trapped.
o Aristotle was beg of empirical psych bcs says we can learn from our
Cog psych. –cog model, the beauty gets bigger and hi