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PPGC67H3 (24)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3 jan 23.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Public Policy
Josh Gordon

Lecture 3 jan 23, 2014 The context of Canadian public policy What are institutions? Rules-established norms and rules of political norms and decision making; they determine whose in power; empowers certain ppl at the expense of others or favour some compared to others eg green party disempowered by the system so they wanna change the electoral system Dynamics of policitcs- can affect how policitcs unfolds State institutions- federalism, parliamentaism, electoral system and constitution of charter Inst are very hard to change/ sticky so which is why its hard to change and also affect type of groups favoured and type of ideas enforces and so they reinforce themselves over time eg electoral system liberal and consv have been ruling the country for a while so they aren’t interested in changing the electoral system but ndp wants to change it bcz they have been underrep by the system over time bu they can only change the system once they are in power but then they would think that since they are in power, it already works and so the idea to change the system then evaporates so institutions tend to lock themselves in and that’s why they matter Federalism Shared sovereignty So we have federal and sub national govts Why would we have federalism? Most countries aren’t – Canada is federal 1) Rep diversity-dictinct pop in the country 2) Limit state power In canadas case, also bringing govt closer This is set out in constitution and so is sticky Federalist system emerged due to conflict bw quebec and the rest of Canada Federal systems differ along tow main liners 1- Centralization/decentralization(this is imp)- affected thru two types of variables of federal arrangement- 2- Symmetry/asymmetry(not so imp as doesn’t have power on policy)-One or more systems have subnational power Centralization/decentralization i- Whats giving thru jurisdiction at the federal and provincial level- monetary system and umemployment insurance is federal; immigration bcz u want a standardized system and if had diff provincial laws then would be hard for ppl to switch frm one province to another and it would be hard to block; pensions bcz functionally it would be hard to handle in provincial National resource devpmt and hospitals given to province- back in 1867 no welfare state so all these things were given to province ii- Taxation and revenue power Canada is the mose decentralized country in the world Const starts very centralized, gradually becomes decentralized(classic federalism) which leads to political flexibility by 1930s then ww2 happens and so federal govt starts taking over taxation power to pay for power and so have vass majority of power which shapes highly centralizaed society known as shared(cooperative) cost federalization(1940s-1970s) to competitive federalism(1970-1990s) and finally to collaborative federalism(1990s to present) Classical- have distinct features of federalism- each province has its own defined jurisdictions and dunt have intermingling bw fed and prov. So that gives POLICY FELXIBILITY bcz u have unilateral possibilities CHART 1933- equal level of spending THEN WW2 HAPPENS AND FEDS TAKE over the spending power and so they have power over provinces- fed sysy we will fund 50% of the costs so few prov agree and few don’t but than u r forced to agree bcz ur paying for it as a prov but not getting anything bcz the policy is still on- so fed has unilateral power which is JOINT DECISION-both sides have to agree so in Canada fed has to agree and 7/10 provinces have to agree w/ 2/3 of population to change a policy Is fed a good way of organizing things? Classical fed- workers assistance, social assistance Shared cost- health care, post sec education Proponents federalism(ideas in support of fed)-respecting diversity Idea that fed captures distinct reg diff in political pref is limited Laboratories of democracy- able in diff subnational organ to experience wid diff type of policy eg this is how we got public health care so it was blocked at national level bt Saskatc
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