Class Notes (808,294)
Canada (493,118)
Sociology (2,416)
SOCA01H3 (591)


3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Ivanka Knezevic

November 22, 2012 Lecture Four main ideas on gender (Siltanen and Doucet) 1. Gender is a vantage point of critique (feminism is activist, not just academic) 2. Gender is a social construction (not an essential, biologically based, unchangeable characteristic of humans) 3. Gender is realized in social roles and institutions (gender is both identity and a structural constraint, which affects both women and men) 4. Gender is a relation of inequality (not just difference) -Knezevic: this reflects the development of North American feminist sociology and assumes high salience of gender / impossibility of gender-neutral social arrangements -Any gender ideology is a self-fulfilling prophecy Gender is a social construction -Gender is a socially constructed identity that is thought to be appropriate to a biological sex -Essentialism: view that male-female differences are universal and largely reflect biological differences -Gender identities differ across time and societies, and they are not binary and polar opposites -Gender stereotypes: oversimplified beliefs that men and women possess different personality traits resulting in different behavior -structuralist view of the instrumental personality of men and expressive personality of women -Siltanen and Doucet: hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity contribute to gender inequality Gender in education -Majority of undergraduate and M.A. students in Canada are women, a slight majority of Ph. D. students are men -Gender based selection of elective subjects in high school enables gender segregation of university programmes (architecture, agriculture, engineering, math, physics, and forestry) -More even gender structure of occupations in Denmark (and other European countries) where all high school subjects are mandatory -Gender structure of engineering students in Canada is more uneven now than it was in the 1970s -Gender structure of licensed engineers is more even, due to immigration of women engineers from Eastern Europe and china Gender at work -Occupational segregation -Gender income gap: in Canada, women earn 79% of the income of the qually qualified man working full time (minimal change since the 1990s), 91% in Belgium, 82% in the US -Women with a professional or graduate degree aged under 30 in Canada: 96%; all women with a bachelor’s degree in Canada: 86% -Precarious work: 40% of Canadian employed women and 34% of the men -High variability of gender norms of standard employment (north America, UK, Japan: continental Europe, post socialist countries like china) Gender in the family -As female labour force activity has increased, men have begun to share some unpaid domestic and care labour (particularly child care) -But the number of hours of unpaid work done by women has not decreased much -Women active in the paid labour force typically work a “double day” (Hochschield “the second shift”) -The value of this unpaid labour (cca. 2/3 done by women. 1/3 by men) is estimated to be 1/3 of Canada’s GDP Arlie H
More Less

Related notes for SOCA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.