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Chap 7 SCP.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ivanka Knezevic

SCP chapter 7 Deviance • Deviance by illustration: list of people who are criminals, drug addicts, alcoholics, chronic liars. • Deviance in statistical terms: people who deviate from average are either extraordinary or inferior • Deviance is study of people, behaviors, conditions subject to social control • Deviance has two distinct yet related dimensions: objective and subjective. Objective refers to the behavior or condition itself. Subjective refers to the placement of that condition by the members of that society in their system of moral stratification • Strain theory by Robert merton: the lack of fit between the cultural goals ppl are encouraged to seek and the means available to pursue these goals creates a social strain to which a deviant behavior is an adjustment • (review table 7.1) • 3 types of delinquency adaptations: 1. The criminal pattern: those involved seek to generate illegal profits example : stealing 2. The conflict pattern: people who fight over territories or boundaries 3. The retreatist pattern : organized around use of hard drugs • Robert agnew theorized that in addition to the inability to achieve the things we want in life, a second strain is the inability to escape a negative condition. • Cultural support theory: the way patterns of cultural beliefs create and sustain deviant conduct. • Edward Sutherland: ppl become deviant because they have been exposed to learning experiences that make deviance more likely • Control theory: deviant behavior occurs when it is allowed to occur so we can expect to find deviance when social controls are weak or broken. • Travis hirschi: if youthful bonds to conventional others are strong , youth need to take these into account when they act; if the bonds are weak they are free to act in ways that reflect much narrower self interest • Michael gottfredson: crimes of all types tend to be committed by people who are impulsive, short sighted and non-verbal risk takers • David luckenbill has demonstrated that murder can in many cases be understood as a situated transaction. His work identifies how murder can be understood as a social product. He identified 6 stages of murder 1. Transaction starts when eventual victim insults the eventual offender 2. The offender declines what the victim said/did as offensive 3. The offender makes a counter move intended to respond and save face 4. Victim responds in an aggressive manner 5. Violent exchange occurs 6. Battle is over, offender flees or stays • Randall Collins argues that a useful situational theory of violence should explain all of its forms by placing interaction in the center of the analysis. Acc to him, one of the main pathways around confrontational tension and fear involves identifying and attacking a weak victim • Males more likely to consume drugs be involved in criminal behavior, more likely to commit sucide and use guns/explosives to do it. More likely to have problems related to addiction and psychosis • Women more likely to have depression or anxiety. • Crime rates hi
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