Class Notes (835,926)
Canada (509,504)
Sociology (2,430)
SOCA01H3 (591)
Lecture

Sociology- Week 1 - 6.docx
Premium

19 Pages
136 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA01H3
Professor
Sheldon Ungar
Semester
Fall

Description
Sociology - September 13, 2012 Concept - Moral panic (ex. Baby snatchers, child abuse) o Exaggerated threat to societal values  Attributed to folk devils Some data on exaggerated fear of crime - Child homicides by strangers - Canada: Highest age-group murder rate – Babies younger than one year old Other moral panics - Epidemics - Second smoke - AIDS (North America – YES, Parts of Africa – No) Establishing moral panic - Need clear and timely evidence of degree of harm o May be unavailable o Future oriented - Compare claims about harm o How much larger must they be? Begin with a Concept - A definition - Examples to fill it in (Images, stories) - Data - Use and Application Sociological Imagination - Translate personal trouble into public issues - Understand how life chances affected by broader social forces - Ex. Cancer, Unemployment, date rape - Intersection of three variables o History o Social Structure – Where are you born? What class? Are you rich or born? o Biography (of individual) Cohort - Set of people born at the same time - Experience similar things at the same age o Especially teen years - Most famous cohort? – “Baby boom,””baby bust,” “MTV generation,” “Generation X,” “20 something”, “know nothing”, “generation with PR problem” i.e. antagonistic terms - 2 major differences between Baby boom and Gen X Cohorts o Time born – History  Affects opportunities o Size of the cohort (Social structure)  Demographic bulge Generation X o Family – not binding times o Economic outlook o Politics, Culture Heroes - Superman - Nelson Mandela - Terry Fox - Kennedy New Impacts of Baby Boom - Plastic surgery - Concern with menopause - Gardening - Bowling (Lawn bowling too!) September 20, 2012 Suicide - September 10 , 2011 – Worldwide Suicide Prevention Day - It has been a major them in philosophy and many other subjects - “Dante’s Inferno “ – The Woods of the Suicides - Albert Amus , The Myth of Sisyphus o “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide.” - Fredrich Nietzche o “The thought of suicide is a great consolation: by means of it one gets through many a bad night” - Philosophy (& psychology) approach suicide as in individual issue – Psych: Depression, failure & etc. - Sociology looks at it from a social point of view; broader social forces affecting one’s life chances - Sue Rodriguez- Went to Supreme Court of Canada asking to be put down by doctors but had lost the case - Dr. Jack Kevorkian is a famous doctor who assisted people who wanted assistance in suicide - Us Military Suicides: 1 per day in Afghanistan (average) o Recall Suicides 25x death rare Afghan war  Still majority vets not kill themselves  What about social solidarity?  Anomie – Many soldiers tend to suffer from Anomie - 6 500 /year among vets o Traumatic brain injury - Suicide appears to be an anti-social, individual act o But Durkheim showed that suicide rates  Decrease with Social Solidarity (Close ties)  Increase with Anomie (A state or condition of individuals or society characterized by a breakdown or absence of social norms and values)  Normlessness; social change as producer of anomie  Men tend to have lower social solidarity and a higher Anomie leading to the increased rate of suicides among men - If suicides were just the result of individual depression or mental illness they would NOT vary systematically by group, time… - Apply Social Solidarity & Anomie o Young vs. Old o Rural vs. Urban  Rural has more social solidarity because they know the people around them more than people who live in the Urban areas o Catholic vs. protestant  Catholic has more social solidarity o Non-aboriginal vs. Aboriginal  Non-Aboriginal has more social solidarity and less anomie Illusions live by - Regime of “truth” foisted on us by constant repetition o Unquestioned o Un-open to questioning - Ex. Americans love military: This is total bs. They don’t love them. They love them in “speech” Theories Functionalism vs Conflict - In medieval Europe, the social order was seen as God-given and fixed. - This changed with the French Revolution & then the industrial revolution - These revolutions created the problem of social order - Conservative Reaction o Those who lost in the revolution drew on Thomas Hobbes on the stress need for restraint and order o The basis of Functionalist - Liberal Reaction to Revolution o See it as liberating to get rid of the aristocracy o Can rationally structure society - Auguste Compte (1798-1857) is the “father of sociology” o Positivist ; belief in scientific method o Social laws equivalent to the laws of nature - Dual Perspective on Society o Order, harmony and continuity o Power, conflict and change - Functionalism o Shared values keep society together r o Successful socialization is thus critical for stability  Family o Biological metaphor  Each part of society plays a part in holding it together - Primary Question o What are its positive consequences?  It functions or benefits for society as a whole?  How does it contribute to social stability? - 3 types of functions o Manifest functions o Latent functions o Dysfunctions - Functionalists stress latent, then manifest functions o They downplay dysfunctions - Apply to education o Manifest functions  Knowledge and skills  Basic norms of behavior  “Sorting” out kids o Latent Functions  Keeping people off the job market o Dysfunctions  Devaluing the degree (too many people obtain it) Conflict Theory – Karl Marx (1818-1883) - Class conflict as key; it is the role of power - Conflict Theory o Marx regarded workers (the proletariat) as alienated in capitalism o They were exploited by the bourgeoisie (owners of means of production) o He argued that the proletariat would become (relatively) impoverished and revolt - Primary Question o Who benefits(gains) from social arguments  Whose interests are involved  How do the privileged maintain their advantages o Applied to education…  How select students to advance?  (What group benefits)  Role of Certification o Legacy positions o Modern Functionalists take apparently “inexplicable” features of society and examine how they contribute to social stability  Ex. Focus on latent Functions o Applied to Prostitution…  As victimless crimes?  Like gambling (used to be a crime!) o Soft drugs (soon may not be..)  Both parties agree (?)  No complaint from parties involved (?)  Police as outsiders who enforce morality (?)  Functional Approach  Manifest functions o Sex o Helping guys have sexual relationships possibly because they have problems at home (physical, emotional)  Conflict Approach o Who benefits?  Male exploitation to females  Pimps get the money, not the females  Women are kept on drugs; they receive beatings September 27, 2012 Used - Class, Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Family size, context Ignored/inadequate - Family composition (single family), Race, Class, Age Sociology vs. Journalism How would sociologists study the “4 families?” - Use random sample to represent population - Measure & quantify counting o Ex. Do systematic counting Sociology as Science - Confirm the obvious o What every knows o Common science VERSUS - Reality is complex o “debunk” the obvious with data The obvious: alcohol fosters crime - A basic argument for Prohibition in US o Will lower crime rates Law as dysfunctional (Functionalism) - Spawns organized crime o Unintended consequence Data are socially constructed - May not measure what it is supposed to measure Explain changes over time - Rise due to o Social changes in society o Changes in recording death certificates Administrative Decisions & Suicide Rates - Children’s suicides o In the past, they would never call it a suicide; instead they would call it “accidents” Prostitution charges - Determines as much by political and administrative procedures as by what is happening in the real world - Law/social control  increase in observed rates KNOW THE RESEARCH CYCLE, KNOW VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Variables - Take on two or more values o Gender o Religion o SES (social economic status) - Independent Variables o Come first in time o May “cause” or affect the dependant variable - Dependent Variables Casual Relationshop - Iv comes first in time - Iv related to (affects) DV - Relationship is not spurious o Not caused by a “third” variable Spuriousness - Is when there is a third variable October 4, 2012 - What TV shows cause most violence? o TV news o Barney? - Science o Conjectures  Some sort of idea you want to go after o Testing  Experiments o Refutations  Attempts to prove it wrong - Predict to real world? o Weather forecast  We can’t predict the weather unless it’s 2 days in advance - Methodology o Way of assessing validity and confidence in our knowledge - Question: Does violence in the media cause violent behavior - You review the literature o Select a theoretical approach o Select method Hypothesis - Specifies a relationship between two or more variables o A testable statement - Observed aggressive behavior on television – increased violence in children? Social Learning Theory - People imitate behavior of models o Use similar others o Use successful models  People would imitate what they see in video games  In the end, they want criminals to be caught and punished  Therefore, people will be less convinced to copy it Methods for a Newspaper 1. Content analysis – Front page suicides in California 2. 2. Daily Motor vehicle – Before and after publicized suicide Phillip’s Results – “3 days – after peak - Controls for day, week, month, holidays (People go faster in warmer temperatures, people go slower when there’s ice) Phillips – Detailed “specification” of effects - Amount of publicity o Time to death o Similar others (age, area) o Suicide vs murder-suicide  Murder-suicide – People either had people as a passenger or they drive along and crash another car Phillips Boxing Study - Looked at “Heavyweight Championships (1973-78)” o Then looks at homicide rates (before/after fights) - 3 day-after peak : 12.5% increase in murders - Murder increase greatest after most publicized fights Research Design - Systematic plan to test hypotheses and eliminate alternative explanations - Each design has strengths and weaknesses o Triangulate designs Designs Correlational - Show violence on tv - Kid’s violence in real world o The two are related over time  But note: Correlation is not causation - Most popular show among GenX is o The Brady Bunch - Measure TV violence: o Longitudinal content analysis of TV  Random sample of TV shows  What years  What shows - How measure aggression o Physical Vs verbal - Longitudinal counts of crime rates o Official statistics o Self-reported measures (?) - The peak of crime was in the 70s and it has gone down now - How accurate are official statistics? o Ex.
More Less

Related notes for SOCA01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit