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Lecture 11

Sociology lecture 11.doc

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Race and Ethnicity Main stream media = Lame stream media (they don’t report everything that’s out there… they invent statistics (ex. global warming)… threatening journals/scientists that are skeptical about global warming -CO2 has no influence on global warming marginality and creativity = NOT ON EXAM!!! -marginal individuals – partly socialized by one culture (primary culture), and socialization of another culture (new culture)… and these people that are socialized by more than one cultures, they tend to be more creative -Chuck Berry (black American) who was the founder of rock and roll (new form of musical expression which is still dominant today) and he was an example of marginality -social construction of race- very often race and ethnicity brings up inequality… some people think race and ethnicity are thought to be ascribed (shaped traits that YOU ARE BORN WITH).. but sociologists suggest that ethnicity and race is socially constructed racial distinctions are not biological given… perceptions of race are socially constructed Lucy is the mother and she’s from Africa Misuse of the term: (1) people think of race to be of skin color Caucasian – white people or people of European background Misuse of the term: (2) Jews are not a race, they are an ethnic group (3) misuse of the term: nationality … ex. the human race or the English race are misused terms -race causes discrimination: prejudice and discrimination of a socially defined group based on their race and genetic inferiority of that group of individuals… you don’t find this anymore except in certain groups race is a social construct used to distinguish people based on physical markers -race biology and society… scapegoating (falsely blame a disadvantaged group for problems of their own making) is often associated with racism… scapegoating is becoming more widespread -problems with race and biological racismn: if you define race on skin colour, and you think of white and non-whites (a classification)… one problem with this classification is: (1) you still see a genetic range within those white populations… another problem with this classification (whites and non-whites): (2) arises during the age of colonialismn… because lots of people (Indonesians, Asians, Thailand) all these groups don’t fit into this white and non-white category… another people with this classification (white and non-white): (3) the fiction of pure race (most of us are genetically mixed to one degree)… you might have more biological similarity… the Japanese are not really a group due to: migration and intermarriages Migration Immigration (moving into a country)… emigration (moving out of the country) … these are two types of migration Intermarriage These (migration, intermarriage) make it virtually impossible to draw biological lines with human population with certain traits -genetic variation within groups is greater than genetic variation between groups… so when you compare two groups, the genetic variation is smaller between group than it is for within a group… how do we get race??? Society arbitrarily selects traits (ex. skin colour)… but the selection of these traits is arbitrary… so the concept of race is SOCIAL; not biological… people are caught/pinned with a racial tag by society -tiger woods has an interesting racial background… he is Cablinasian… he invented that term to denote his multiracial heritage another problem with race can create a sense of membership…consciousness of kind…people are conscious to belonging to a group that is socially defined.. so this segregates populations… it can create an insider (I belong to this group and rest of society belongs to other groups)… so this idea of consciousness of kind can lead to social conflict -prejudice is an attitude and discrimination is a behaviour Institutional racism – genuine (racism in its original sense) … you will find these in apartheid societies (southern part of united states or in Africa)… institutional racism is when government and state develops laws which discriminates people based on their socially defined race… laws of segregation and you make intermarriage illegal (apartheid societies do this)… -systematic racism – when you establish policies that discriminate against certain groups (maybe because of size)… ex. Toronto police force used to have a hiring requirement of you to have a certain weight and height before you could become a police officer (so this left out some ethic groups that tended to be smaller and left out woman ..ex. are police and fire fighters -superordinate – a group in charge… and subordinate… a group that the superordinate control -stereotype – make an evaluation of somebody based on that individuals membership in a socially defined group… stereotyping is part of cycle of racismn -ethnicity: a cultural (dress or religion) phenomena and it can also have race (social) being part of it ethnic groups: collection of people that share cultural values and interact with each other and see themselves and are seen as a cultural unit… Canadians today on a census would put multiple responses to: “who are you?” which suggests that ethnic identity is still important… Canadians identify themselves with multiple ethnic origins ethnic traits: religion, language, clothing, holidays, sense of community (ethnic members are aware that they belong to a certain group) feelings of ethnocentrism (subcultural group that I belong to is the best one and we have the most favourite set of attributes compared to others.. my people are more hard working, smarter, and just better than the outsiders) you get membership from birth… so its not something you achieve, it is something that is ascribed (from birth)… -sometimes ethnicity is associated with a territory … ex. Quebec is the home of French Canadians of Canada you can also have residential segregation: certain areas of the city are monopolized by certain ethnic groups… (ex. along the Danforth, you find a group of Greek restaurants)… residential segregation -residential segregation can be voluntary or involuntary: certain groups, by law, must live in certain areas (because other areas belong to other groups) .. this is involuntary residential segregation… this happens in apartheid cities…. In canada the residential segregation is voluntary.. people choose to live in an area where there are other members of my ethnic groups.. this is typically the case when people first immigrate to Canada.. people feel more comfortable moving into an area where others of themselves are around them because they feel more at home… their offspring (when they grow up) tend to move to the suburbs and there is mo
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