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SOCA02H3 (398)

The Social Aspects of Aging.docx

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Ivanka Knezevic

The Social Aspects of Aging Demographic transition  First demographic transition: change from low and stable population of pre-industrial socities (high fertility. High mortality) to growing population of industrial societies (slowly declining fertility, fast declining mortality)  Modernisation theory of development: industrialisation fosters labour force participation and rationalism which foster decline in fertility  Cultural lag: cultural norms maintain high fertility  Second demographic transition: change from growing population of industrial societies to high and stable (later: declining) population of post-industrial societies (low fertility, low mortality). Population change in Canada- Fertility  Demographic change is the result of fertility mortality and net migration. Declining fertility is the most important cause of population ageing  Fertility declined from 7 births per woman in the 1850s to under 2 by the 1980s  Replacement fertility is the average number of children needed to replace one generation by the next (2.1 children per woman).  Proximate causes: fewer long term relationships and marriages, older age at marriage, more divorces, cohabitation, and use of birth control  Cultural causes: changes in the value and cost of children in both economic and cultural terms.  Structural causes: changing role of men and woman in their work and social life  Population change in Canada mortality  In 1831, life expectancy at birth was 39 years.  In 2007, it was 81 years  Largely due to improved nutrition and control of infectious diseases, which lowered infant mortality rates  Now most deaths are due to degenerative conditions occurring at an even older age. Population change in Canada-immigration  Immigration accounted for 45% of Canadian population growth in the 1990s  Immigrants contribute to the population reproduction not only by net migration, but also by
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