The Social Aspects of Aging
First demographic transition: change from low and stable population of pre-industrial socities
(high fertility. High mortality) to growing population of industrial societies (slowly declining
fertility, fast declining mortality)
Modernisation theory of development: industrialisation fosters labour force participation and
rationalism which foster decline in fertility
Cultural lag: cultural norms maintain high fertility
Second demographic transition: change from growing population of industrial societies to high
and stable (later: declining) population of post-industrial societies (low fertility, low mortality).
Population change in Canada- Fertility
Demographic change is the result of fertility mortality and net migration. Declining fertility is the
most important cause of population ageing
Fertility declined from 7 births per woman in the 1850s to under 2 by the 1980s
Replacement fertility is the average number of children needed to replace one generation by
the next (2.1 children per woman).
Proximate causes: fewer long term relationships and marriages, older age at marriage, more
divorces, cohabitation, and use of birth control
Cultural causes: changes in the value and cost of children in both economic and cultural terms.
Structural causes: changing role of men and woman in their work and social life
Population change in Canada mortality
In 1831, life expectancy at birth was 39 years.
In 2007, it was 81 years
Largely due to improved nutrition and control of infectious diseases, which lowered infant
Now most deaths are due to degenerative conditions occurring at an even older age. Population change in Canada-immigration
Immigration accounted for 45% of Canadian population growth in the 1990s
Immigrants contribute to the population reproduction not only by net migration, but also by