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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 Education.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Education  Secularization: religious institutions used to control education. Religion monopolized education. Education is critical secondary education of socialization  Mass-education: relatively wealthy countries.  Education: 300 years ago, most were literate  100 years ago: majority never attended school  1950: 10% of the world’s countries had system of compulsory mass education  Does education lead to equality or inequality? – Watson and prick (DNA guys) decoded DNA, (double helix name of book) took place in universities and led to the creation of genetic companies. The economy also influences education.  See slide 6  Functionalism approach to education-see slide 7  Education is competitive  The functional approach St simon  Conflict Perspectives: stress economic behaviours prevent people from getting an education. Many jobs require academic credentials.  They say people who don’t have cultural capital are placed at a disadvantage.  The conflict people argue that they are unfair because it promotes inequality. This comes from Karl Marx and neo-Marxist.  Education because of unequal preparation=unequal access (social inequality)  See Slide 9  Education attainment: number of years of schooling  Education is function(makes a contribution to social survival, stability etc)  In tradition societies, (non-literate societies tribal) information, knowledge is transmitted by the family and tribe. As societies become more scientific and technological.  Knowledge society thesis* ->know it  The family can’t provide you with the information you need to operate in this kind of society  Specialized education institutions properly socialize people for adult roles in modern complex societies.  Primary school: Reading, Righting, and Rhythmatic (literacy, and numeracy)  Secondary school focuses on primary education. More academic education.  It is specialized in a practical education.  The formal curriculum. Many people overlook the informal curriculum(hidden curriculum)  Hidden curriculum is implicit, latent and transmits cultural values, beliefs, and norms.  Schools encourage good behaviour and discourage bad behaviour.  Schools teach sociability. They teach discipline and punctuality. Schools also teach motivation, long-range planning, hard work. You need to be future oriented and achievement oriented.  Schools teach that some people are better suited to better topics than others. Everyone is treated alike. There is no ascription. Everything is based on performance or meritocracy.  Deferred Graphication: people learn to “defer” (put off)  Schools try to stimulate intellectual inquiry. Schools and education stimulate critical thinking which leads to critical ideas.  When you go to community college everything is straightforward. A specific skill with a specific education.  Faculties in universities where everyone teaches, but also researching.  There is no creativity in natural, and social sciences without education.  Education changes and transforms you.  Gellner mass education was based on modern nationalism. SEE SLIDE 11.  Education is important to forge and brings people, unifies people, into a functioning hole. Social solidarity. The whole operates more socially because of socialization.  Societies like the old Soviet Union, ethnic diversity under communism. They used schools to establish a unified national identity. They tried to overcome ethnic differences. They tried to integrate under uniformity “socialist man”. They used the educational system to forge a single national identity.  When the Soviet Union collapsed the ethnic thing came out of the box.  The belting republics, Estonia, Lithuania all sued for independence.  In Canada people don’t integrate by uniformity, but by standing for diversity (multi- culturalism)  Ancestral homeland is associated with a specific geographical area.  Canada integrates around diversity and multiculturalism; there is still considerable uniformity in the Canadian educational experience. You must learn English. Everyone must learn the three R’s. People have to learn specific job related skills. People must lean the values of being a citizen. All people are exposed to the value of tolerance and acceptance of differences.  Various ethnic groups can maintain identity  Education gives people social standing  Cultural capitalSEE SLIDE 12  Not everyone has cultural capital because it is scarce and valuable.  Pedagogic Violencepunishments intended to discourage any deviation from the dominant culture.  Education helps people pursue academic status, education is functional because it helps people achieve these things. Prepares people for educational roles. It develops people’s aptitudes.  Education helps people fund what they are good at.  Universities evaluate people based on their achievement. The most gifted and successful are directed to graduate schools and professional schools  Education is the most significant way of achieving upward mobility.  Earnings by education  Education makes a significant contribution to social standing  Unintended functional consequences of education. Child care, education provides poor child care when both parents work  Particularly important for single parent families where they have to work.  Educational systems provide a controlled environment for teenagers. The students can be watched and mentored.  Teenage males have high rates of crime, mostly physiological, and biological. The frontal lobes of the brain inhi
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