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Sociology of education.docx

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Sociology of education: - Religious organizations used to control schools, still seen somewhat today in Ontario: have separate school board. - Religion monopolized education - Education is critical as secondary agent of socialization, under family - Mass education is 100 yrs old in Canada - Education is expensive - Education is worth it especially now- you cannot maintain a developed nation status without education - 100 yrs ago major: many were illiterate - 1950: 10% of world countries had mass education - Canada now has a 99% literacy rate - Does education lead to equality or inequality? - How changes in education related to changes in the economy? - Watson Prick: decoded DNA that lead to creation of genetic engineering companies, book ”double helix”, how education impacts the economy - How the economy influences education: e.g. laptops - Computers were created by Steven wazniyak took his idea for making a personal computer to IBM, but they shooed him away, made the computer in his basement - Two theoretical approaches to education: functionalist and conflict approach - Functionalist approach: o Establishment of mass education is used to create uniform socialization o More homogenized culture o Emphasizes achievements, ascription does not count, and meritocracy o Educational achievements: how many skills you have/acquired o Education attainment: usually observed from the way people talk hence interviews- looking for any cultural capital, how they present themselves in front of other people o Education is functional- makes contribution to social survival and stability o Traditional societies= non literate = tribal societies: information, knowledge is transmitted by the family and tribe. o As societies become more literate and more scientific, more technological; division of labour increases and schools and formal education become more necessary. o Cannot have a complex society without major educational institutions = knowledge society thesis o Family/tribe cannot provide children with information needed to live in complex society. Kinship network cannot do this either. o Need specialized educational institutions to properly prepare adults to live in complex societies o Primary school: reading, arithmetic, riting – literacy and numeracy o Secondary schools specialize in primary education o Formal curriculum: what we actually learn in school o The hidden curriculum: often overlooked put always present. Is implicit, teaches obedience, uniformity, latent, transmits culture values, beliefs and norms by enforcing good behaviour and discouraging behaviour.  Zero tolerance policy on violence but can be overcome by self defence o Teach children sociability- how to get along with other people which is evaluated when you are in your working place o Schools teach discipline and punctuality o Employers prefer university students because they have been socialized o Schools teach motivation, long range planning, and hard work, how to be achievement orientated. Teach us that some people are smarter than others in some topics. o Rules apply equally to everybody = no ascription, solely based on meritocracy- based on hidden curriculum o Deferred gratification: learn to put off the riches of the world = discipline o Creativity and discovery: trying to stimulate intellectual inquiry, greater thinking to give new ideas seen in community college and university = doing research o No creativity in natural or social sciences, philosophy or history o Education changes people fundamentally o Social integration o Glaner: mass education was bases for modern nationalism , nation state established common educational system in which people are socialized into that system = social solidarity o Robert bella: there are civil religions that assure homogeniality- togetherness o Education can help bring people and unifies them into a functioning whole – operating more smoothly, less antagonism o Soviet union:  Collapsed in 1988  Had great ethnic diversity  Under communism  Tried use schools to establish a unified national identity  Tried to overcome ethnic differences  Tried to integrate uniformity  Educational system was used to make a singular national identity for all the different ethnic groups  Once collapsed there was no more unity, difference were established  War started in 1990’s in Yugoslavia  Ancestral homeland: our people that lived in this geographical piece of space for a considerable piece of time  Baltic republics: Latvia, Estonia, Edwina wanted independence from soviet union including Georgia and Chechnya o Canada: preach by integrating standing for diversity – multiculturalism  More successful than soviet union  Western countries are integration societies  Want to integrate = must be done around diversity  Ethnic identity comes from ancestral immigrants, Quebec e.g.  There is still uniformity in education system by learning English, otherwise used ESL programs (English second language)  Exposed to tolerances and differences  Integrates around diversity, multiculturalism  There is still uniformity in the mass education: have to learn English or join ESL programs  Learn values and virtues of being a citizen  Exposed to values of tolerance and acceptance of differences so that various ethnic groups can maintain their identity o Education is competitive o St Simon, compt, Spencer, parons : early functionalists that developed functional theory o Unintended functional consequences of education: childcare, controlled environment for teenagers- teenager males : inhibitory mechanism for impulsive behaviour in frontal
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