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SOCA02H3 Lecture Notes - Medicalization, Pierre Trudeau, Human Capital

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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Sociology of education:
- Religious organizations used to control schools, still seen somewhat today in Ontario: have
separate school board.
- Religion monopolized education
- Education is critical as secondary agent of socialization, under family
- Mass education is 100 yrs old in Canada
- Education is expensive
- Education is worth it especially now- you cannot maintain a developed nation status without
- 100 yrs ago major: many were illiterate
- 1950: 10% of world countries had mass education
- Canada now has a 99% literacy rate
- Does education lead to equality or inequality?
- How changes in education related to changes in the economy?
- Watson Prick: decoded DNA that lead to creation of genetic engineering companies, book
”double helix”, how education impacts the economy
- How the economy influences education: e.g. laptops
- Computers were created by Steven wazniyak took his idea for making a personal computer to
IBM, but they shooed him away, made the computer in his basement
- Two theoretical approaches to education: functionalist and conflict approach
- Functionalist approach:
o Establishment of mass education is used to create uniform socialization
o More homogenized culture
o Emphasizes achievements, ascription does not count, and meritocracy
o Educational achievements: how many skills you have/acquired
o Education attainment: usually observed from the way people talk hence interviews-
looking for any cultural capital, how they present themselves in front of other people
o Education is functional- makes contribution to social survival and stability
o Traditional societies= non literate = tribal societies: information, knowledge is
transmitted by the family and tribe.
o As societies become more literate and more scientific, more technological; division of
labour increases and schools and formal education become more necessary.
o Cannot have a complex society without major educational institutions = knowledge
society thesis
o Family/tribe cannot provide children with information needed to live in complex society.
Kinship network cannot do this either.
o Need specialized educational institutions to properly prepare adults to live in complex
o Primary school: reading, arithmetic, riting literacy and numeracy
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o Secondary schools specialize in primary education
o Formal curriculum: what we actually learn in school
o The hidden curriculum: often overlooked put always present. Is implicit, teaches
obedience, uniformity, latent, transmits culture values, beliefs and norms by enforcing
good behaviour and discouraging behaviour.
Zero tolerance policy on violence but can be overcome by self defence
o Teach children sociability- how to get along with other people which is evaluated when
you are in your working place
o Schools teach discipline and punctuality
o Employers prefer university students because they have been socialized
o Schools teach motivation, long range planning, and hard work, how to be achievement
orientated. Teach us that some people are smarter than others in some topics.
o Rules apply equally to everybody = no ascription, solely based on meritocracy- based on
hidden curriculum
o Deferred gratification: learn to put off the riches of the world = discipline
o Creativity and discovery: trying to stimulate intellectual inquiry, greater thinking to give
new ideas seen in community college and university = doing research
o No creativity in natural or social sciences, philosophy or history
o Education changes people fundamentally
o Social integration
o Glaner: mass education was bases for modern nationalism , nation state established
common educational system in which people are socialized into that system = social
o Robert bella: there are civil religions that assure homogeniality- togetherness
o Education can help bring people and unifies them into a functioning whole operating
more smoothly, less antagonism
o Soviet union:
Collapsed in 1988
Had great ethnic diversity
Under communism
Tried use schools to establish a unified national identity
Tried to overcome ethnic differences
Tried to integrate uniformity
Educational system was used to make a singular national identity for all the
different ethnic groups
Once collapsed there was no more unity, difference were established
War started in 1990’s in Yugoslavia
Ancestral homeland: our people that lived in this geographical piece of space for
a considerable piece of time
Baltic republics: Latvia, Estonia, Edwina wanted independence from soviet union
including Georgia and Chechnya
o Canada: preach by integrating standing for diversity multiculturalism
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