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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

TECHNOLOGY & GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT CH. 22 • Massive population growth over past 100 years -Industrialization -Urbanization • Ecology: “The study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment” -Ecology first developed in Germany • Natural Environment: “The earth’s surface and atmosphere, including living organisms, as well as the air, water, soil, and other resources necessary to sustain life • Ecosystem: “A system composed of interactions of all living organisms and their natural environments -The Ecosystem is a whole- affects the whole planet - The Ecosystem is the whole planet *-All interrelated and interdependent -“Eco” means house • Environmental Deficit: “ The long term negative consequences to the natural environment caused by humanity’s preoccupation with material affluence” (ex. pollution, acid rain) TECHNOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT: 3 Stages of Development: 1. We started as hunter gatherers -bands of 20-25 people that had not impact on the environment 2. Societies at intermediate stage of development -Pori cultural societies (small scale farming) -Pastoralism- taming animals ( horses, dogs, oxen, cats, etc.) -Agricultural Societies- use animal drawn plows *- Slash and Burn- technique for clearing forests so you can farm on it. 3. Industrial Revolution -Science & technology changes all this -Urbanization -Dams (for hydroelectric power) * The globe is very resilient (can bounce back) Donella Meadows -“Limits of Growth” –book 1). Rate of population growth 2). Amount of arable land (land that can be used for farming) 3). Industrial & food production 4). Pollutants released st Protects to End of 21 century 1). Rapidly consuming non renewable resources 2). Hunger will persist. By 2052, famine 3). Depleted resources will cripple industrial growth Cultural Values: Money & Comfort * The biggest pollutant in recent years is Communism • Environmentalists are extremely pessimistic about humans DDT- Kills mosquitoes- therefore stops Malaria - It was banned though Environmentalism- Claims to be able to predict the future - “Modern day Cassandras” (Cassandra was a Greek goddess who could predict the future) -They have an apocalyptic vision (an end of the world) -They believe that the ideology of growth if flawed (clean air, waste etc. is finite- can be exhausted) • The best way to curb population growth is wealth. When people are wealthy, they have less children (1.6 children) Therefore, populations drop. • Since 1950, the price of these raw materials (ex nickel etc.) have dropped, because there are a lot of them • We do live in a disposable society (planned obsolescence: products are engineered to self respect) • 80% of solid waste ends up in landfills • landfills can pollute ground water (water underground) • Some things don’t decompose: ex plastic bags, tires, washable diapers • Recycling- you turn waste into a resource ex. compost ISSUES SURROUNDING WATER & AIR -oceans, lakes and stream- water is critical (for drinking, bathing, recreation, cleaning away human waste) • Hydrological Cycle- The naturally occurring recycling of water. Water is always being recycled The Process of Recycling Water: -Heat from the sun will cause EVAPORATION -Evaporation forms CLOUDS -Water fall to earth- RAIN -Water runs into streams and goes back into oceans WORLD & WATER • Desalinization Plant-takes ocean water, and takes the salt out of it -quite expensive -increases water use • Many people rely o
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