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Lec 4.docx

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Dan Silver

Lec 4 1. Rationalization 2. Bureaucracy and Charisma 3. Science as a Vocation 4. Religious Rejections of the World Rationalization  A lot of traditional practices are thrown out because of rationalization  1. Science o Empirical observation of the world o Ancient Greece had Astrology and History  2. Art o Ppl have refined musical ears o Writing music with musical notation  3. Architecture o Based on modern mathematics  4. Universities o Places of higher learning o Structure around different disciplines  5. Bureaucracy o Specialized civil service  6. Constitutional State o You have a constitution based on the theory of a proper government not based on tradition  7. Capitalism o Not about greediness for oneself o Every day you calculate how much you made  We live by moral rules  Rationalization of social life = bureaucracy Bureaucracy  Main characteristics:  1. Jurisdictional Areas: o Your work is defined around that o Defines who’s in charge and how much authority you hold  2. Office hierarchy o Ppl who do general functions and those who do specific functions o Chain of command o About working your way up the ladder o Based on how well you do the function 3. Files o Records o Not kept at home, they are about the organization o Files allow a person to do their role  4, Full time job o Put your whole energy into it  5. Operate by general rules o Rules have to apply to everyone o If you make any exceptions you have to change the rules  6. Appointment of jobs o As opposed to election or entrepreneurship o Care about pleasing the ppl above you so you can move up  7. Bureaucrats get salaries o Salaries depend on your role o Higher salaries mean a higher position  8. Ethos of office o Meaning you get from your work o Doing what the office demands o Doing your function well is your purpose in life o Duties of your job come before any moral decisions o Don’t let your emotions get in the way so that you can make decisions efficiently  Why are bureaucracies so powerful? o 1. Impersonal  Bureaucracy = a human machine  Just doing your job without emotions attached o 2. Long memories  Because of files  Remember things from the past o 3. Hierarchical  Clear chain of command (top-bottom)  Don’t waste time debating eachother  The ppl at the top make the decision o 4. Cheaper than alternatives  If everyone’s doesn’t agree then it doesn’t get things done  In a bureaucracy the person at the top makes all the decisions  What are the social consequences? o 1. Inequality  Creates inequality  Non democratic rule because a bureaucracy is the rule of the experts  Secrecy:dont like ppl seeing
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