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SOCB44H3 (40)


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John Hannigan

SOCB44: LECTURE 3 (September 24, 2012) Indus Region – 2500 BCE Moenjo-Daro – 1500 BCE - one of the thriving settlements before - physical infrastructure of the place = has buildings made of bricks from mud, 2 stories high - one of the buildings even had an underground furnace - well constructed and functioning sanitation systems = drainage, sit down toilets in 1500 BCE China - in early era, settlement is different in the sense that the temples, etc. are geographically separated from other buildings Middle east - later on, became powerful - couple of cities in M.E., 400K population Cairo - half a million in population in 14 century Constantinople - Istanbul Max Weber - wrote the book “Cities” - argued the cities in the east had one thing that is missing compared to the west = they had no independent political identity - dominant social system in eastern society continued to dominate - e.g. Caste System – cities in the east never development independent stratification system, municipal government and institution th 5 century - start of Urban Decline - e.g. Rome – dropped to 20K population by the 5 century from 700K population o decline on roman empire o barbarians – German hoards that invaded the roman empire o religion – romans established strong religious underpinning but over time, belief in Roman Gods declined and Christianity came along o economic trade – decline of roman empire coincided with the rise of Islamic Empire 1  from the 5 century onwards, trade along east and west Mediterranean stopped  ripple effect with no trades and flow of goods = Then no place for agricultural growth - Feudal system – society dominated across Europe  System revolves around subsystem agriculture (farm enough to feed their family. No production of extra food)  System that reverted back to relatively simple stratification system  3 level stratification system:  king = divine; land and privilege  nobles = lived in the castle, has big state that they control in return when king decides to go to work, they were expected to go off the war and fight for the king; 1 right on marriage; etc.  servants/peasants = not allowed to do anything on their own or own any land and not allowed to leave estate, etc. o Church (catholic) – has only comfortable power on the nobles  Tolls  No secular law = only legal system existed was “canon law”  Canon law = law of roman catholic church  Catholic church has prohibition on “usury” (money lending)  Usury – sinful to lend and borrow money according to canon law  VS Jewish lenders were not bound by this th th - ^This is persistent from 5 to 11 century - arts and culture died/disappeared o cities have been closely tied to arts and culture production so when cities disappeared, they disappeared too th th 10 -11 century – turn this around = crusades o Various Popes prevailed some of the kings o Good of example of how to spin propaganda/saving humanity or Christianity o After initial defeats, crusades emerged triumphantly by troops fin
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