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Lecture 5

SOCB58 Lecture 5 Notes

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Lecture 5: Midterm, 20 MCQ, worth 1.5 marks each 5 or 6 short answer questions, and a bonus question on Sicko, or a question, concept or article of your choice that isn’t already on the exam; defending it A stakeholder theory, R Edward freeman reading is not on the exam! Who is the person, and what did they do for their country Reading: The selling of body parts  Chadwick says selling body parts is wrong, and should not even be contemplated; she starts to draw from Emanuel Kant, he argues:  1) A person is never to be treated as a means to someone else’s ends  Something that has the ability to have free will and exists for itself should not be able to sell body parts; we are not objects  A human being who can reason, demonstrate their rationality and has the ability to use will, should never be used as an object, and therefore sell body parts  What about people who don’t match these characteristics? Ex. children cannot demonstrate their rationality and have critical thinking until their seven or eight; other people are the mentally disabled, the retarded; older people who go through Alzheimer’s  Kant leaves out quite a number of people and he leaves out animals; the fastest growing area of environmental law is growing fastest  2) Universalization; the reason why he is arguing using someone as a object is morally wrong, not because he is coming from a religious perspective, but he was trying to find non-religious ways, rational ways, to defend his morality  He says we never invent a moral system, we inherit laws that have been around, natural laws; morality is universal and it didn’t matter what time or space you are in  Kant says before doing an action think about what would happen if the rest of society did what you were thinking, and if there would be a bad result then it’s probably wrong  3) Kant’s main theme in his studies is intention, rather than results  Ex. if someone’s rich uncle asks to help kill him, is he morally right or wrong?  In Kant’s system if he does it for the money he is wrong, if he does it to take his uncle out of pain he has done morally right; the result is the same for both, death of the uncle  4) Kant says you can’t really judge intention unless someone is always using an act of altruism  Kant says if someone is always helping others, we can trust they have goodwill  A problem is most people don’t even know why they act the way they do; humans do not always understand themselves  Chadwick says morality is concerned with how people treat each other, and it’s never about just you deciding but with what the public think; she says the people who will first sell body parts are those in developing countries trying to make money 
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