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Lecture 11

SOCC38 Lecture 11: WEEK 11

Course Code
Ann Mullen

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- Same as midterm—really a 2 hour exam, instead of 3 hour exam
- Study guide will be posted by this Friday
- Bring in a hardcopy and submit to turnitin
- There is a debate going on in Canada and US. Women make up 57% of the
university students. Men are in the minority of students in university.
- Some people complain about this talking about feminism of education and
dominance of women and “male-problem”
- We need to worry about men being 43% of university students.
- NYT-Women are leaving men in the dust.
- Media representations, it is dichotomous. All men against all women. Doesn’t
look at the intersections of gender, class and race.
- Race and ethnicity—there are many more women in university. But the race and
ethnicity gap is far bigger compared to the gender gap. 56% of Asians have
completed a university degree compared to 39% of whites, 20% of blacks and
13% of Hispanics.
- Social class continues to be the biggest predictor of who goes to university. True
in Canada and the USA. 70% of US students from wealthy families are going to
university. Only 20% of low income families in the US are going to university
- US—stratified system of education system—IVY League, University, Liberal Arts
University’s and then Colleges
oWomen make it to the most unselective tires, more than 60% of these are
oTop institutions—pretty balanced, 50%men, 50%women
oMen continue to get their degrees at better institutions
- Fields of study—men and women choose there are still huge gender gaps.
oFields—Education, nursing, social work, health profession—dominated by
- Jobs that these fields lead to. Men tend to go to the higher paying jobs after
- Laura Armstrong article points out—how many and women experience gender
oSelf-confidence. In university level, about half of women consider
themselves above average. 2/3 of men rate themselves as above
- Types of jobs and incomes men and women get differs on the basis of gender
oWhen men and women graduate in university. Women will make 80% of
what men will be earning.

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oMen will be 50 000, women will be 40 000
oDetermined based on majors, but even with control of major, women still
earn considerably less than men do. Women with Bachelors degree make
the same as men with a 2-year degree.
- Helps contextualize that women take over higher education, but when we think
about other factors, we can see that we haven’t attained gender egalitarianism
with gender education
- Key Terms: Hidden Curriculum, Devaluation of the Feminine
- Follow up to –Evans and elementary school books
- Idea of science as being objective and factual
- Study done on undergraduate science textbooks. Found that even in science,
Culture and cultural understandings of gender still make their presence known in
the world of science.
- Ideas map up to the hidden curriculum and the devaluation of the feminine.
- Found overall, that female biological processes are described or conveyed as
less worthy or deficient
- Example: Males are regarded as superior—able to produce millions of sperms
each month. Whereas, females can only produce one egg.
oCan look at it in the reverse and see how wasteful it is to produce millions
of sperms compared to one egg
- Examples: Menstruation—the way it is described as waste of discarded debris
and it is another way the female is devalued. And the same thing is not used to
describe sperm
- Examples: Same wasteful idea is applied to women as the have many eggs in a
lifetime, but will only have a few children
- Examples: The way the egg and sperm is portrayed. Athletic terms used to
described sperm. Feminine terms to describe eggs. Idea of sperm being the main
actor and how it is very active, while the egg just stays there and waits.
- Egg is more productive than is described and does not just ‘wait’ around for the
sperm to do its work and these ideas were very slow to enter the textbook.
Cultural constructions are strong enough to influence scientists
- When new research made its way to the textbooks, there were a new set of
gender stereotypes that came out
- Common knowledge that egg being active—referred to as man catcher or as a
- Cultural interpretations create personalities of eggs and sperms. Strong
stereotypes of weak damsels in distress and strong male rescuers.
- Key Terms: Body Theory, “Being Ordinary”, Fragmentation, passing, multiplicity
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