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Lecture 5

Archaeology Lecture Five + Readings

7 Pages
75 Views

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Christopher Watts

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ORIGINS OF CITIES AND STATES (TO)
Conventional characteristics of civilization were evident by about 3500 B.C.
oCommunities began to differ in size and specialize in certain crafts in parts of
the Near East
oFirst inscriptions
oMonumental architecture
oGreat differences in status and wealth
oHierarchal, centralized political system (chiefdoms)
Most ancient civilizations arose in the Near East around 3500 B.C., in northwest
India after 2500 B.C. , northern China in 1750 B.C., in the New World 2KYA and in
tropical Africa years later
Ancient High civilizations:
oMesopotamia (3200 BC), Nile Valley (3000 BC), Indus Valley (2500 BC),
North China (2000 BC), Mesoamerica (1500 BC), South America (Inca state
1500 BC)
ARCHAEOLOGICAL INFERENCES ABOUT CIVILIZATION
Earliest Neolithic societies were egalitarian
oEgalitarian all persons of a given age-sex category have equal access to
economic resources, power and prestige
High status was assigned as birth rather than further on in life
What is a Complex Society?
Typically associated with chiefdoms and states
States
o first evolved around 3500 B.C. in Greater Mesopotamia
oCentralized authorities with the power to tax surplus production derived
from intensive land use and increased productivity (Childe, 1952)
But there are other indicators a complex of cultural phenomena (Flannery 1972)
such as...
oWriting
www.notesolution.com
Most early writing took the form of conventionalized and abstract
pictorial forms
E.g, the letter A is thought to be descended from a stylized Semitic
drawing of an ox head
Later developments involve Syllabic/Alphabetic systems
oSyllabic written symbol for each syllable
E.g., cuneiform (Mesopotamia) and hieroglyphics (Egypt)
oAlphabetic written symbol for each vowel and consonant
E.g., Greek alphabet 22 symbols; Roman (Latin) alphabet
21 symbols
Earliest writing we see from anywhere in the world is Mesopotamia
oE.g., clay tablet from Jemdet Nasr, Mesopotamia, ca. 4000BC
Describes the organization of fields and crops. The circular
and semicircular impressions are numbers
oMesopotamians use writing to record trades of goods
oMetallurgy
Early Metalworking (Copper/Bronze/Iron Ages) ca. 4000 -600 BC in
Europe
oBalkans ca. 4000BC copper (cold hammered)
Axes, ornaments and other items traded over a wide area
oItaly and Iberia (Portugal and Spain) ca. 3000 BC copper
smelting
oCzech Republic ca. 2500 BC bronze
oBronze spread rapidly throughout Europe ca. 1700 1300 BC
oExchange networks facilitated the spread of ironworking
techniques after 1000 BC
Weapons, utilitarian objects
More difficult to smelt, but iron ore is more widely available
oBetter agricultural implements, population increases presage
Roman Empire
www.notesolution.com

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Description
ORIGINS OF CITIES AND STATES (TO) Conventional characteristics of civilization were evident by about 3500 B.C. o Communities began to differ in size and specialize in certain crafts in parts of the Near East o First inscriptions o Monumental architecture o Great differences in status and wealth o Hierarchal, centralized political system (chiefdoms) Most ancient civilizations arose in the Near East around 3500 B.C., in northwest India after 2500 B.C. , northern China in 1750 B.C., in the New World 2KYA and in tropical Africa years later Ancient High civilizations: o Mesopotamia (3200 BC), Nile Valley (3000 BC), Indus Valley (2500 BC), North China (2000 BC), Mesoamerica (1500 BC), South America (Inca state 1500 BC) ARCHAEOLOGICAL INFERENCES ABOUT CIVILIZATION Earliest Neolithic societies were egalitarian o Egalitarian all persons of a given age-sex category have equal access to economic resources, power and prestige High status was assigned as birth rather than further on in life What is a Complex Society? Typically associated with chiefdoms and states States o first evolved around 3500 B.C. in Greater Mesopotamia o Centralized authorities with the power to tax surplus production derived from intensive land use and increased productivity (Childe, 1952) But there are other indicators a complex of cultural phenomena (Flannery 1972) such as... o Writing www.notesolution.com
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