General patterns of morphology for some key fossil hominins. Mosaic evolution: major evolutionary changes tend to take place in stages, not all at one. Knees: bipedal have valgus knee knee towards centre of body line. Quad, knees bent outwards, lack muscles in hip that we do, so they swing their legs. Foramen magnum located at back of skull because they are best forward. Human pelvis serves as a chalice to hold organs. Australopithecine: waist down like humans, waste up like gorilla. 1. 8 mya brain size began to increase more rapidly. Human brains cannot continue to get bigger and bigger, or it would be too hard to be born. Instead of greater volume, developed greater surface area; folds on brain increases area. We currently are pretty much at max for brain power possibility. Everything starts in africa homo-erectus is the one that finally leaves africa. Ardipithecus ramidus: (cid:498)ardi(cid:499) ethiopia, (cid:856). (cid:856) mya, teeth and fragments of upper and lower bones.