ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Allomorph, Morpheme, Phoneme

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28 Feb 2013
School
Department
Course
Professor
Linguistics Lecture 3
Levels of Linguistic Form
Texts
Sentences
Words
Phonemes
Phones (phonetics)
Discourse Analysis: Text and Context
Any meaningful item or items perceived as a unit
A meaningful item or items understood as not forming part of
a larger item
“Hamlet” AND “to be or not to be” are both texts
Linguistic and non-linguistic texts (lecture room in a text)
Context
o How text is understood (“with text”)
o Outside the actual text but related to it
Syntax: Sentence Structure
The structure of sentences
Morphology: Words and their Structure
The structure of words
Morpheme: smallest meaningful unit of language that carries
meaning
o Con-text
o Care-ful-ly
o Not the same as syllables
o Allomorph: Variant of a morpheme
Found in specific positions within the word
The “plural morpheme”
Variants (allomorphs): -s or es always
spelled s, not always pronounced s (z or iz)
(d, b, g = z; t, p, k = s)
o Phonemes
Units of the sound system of language
Not sounds but classes of sounds
Phonemes have variants
Sounds in contrastive distribution
Meaning changes when you replace on phoneme
to another
I.e. “bat” to “hat”
Can make minimal pairs
Aspirated and unaspirated
Aspirated Ph occurs at the beginning of a
stressed syllable
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Document Summary

Any meaningful item or items perceived as a unit. A meaningful item or items understood as not forming part of a larger item. Hamlet and to be or not to be are both texts. Linguistic and non-linguistic texts (lecture room in a text) Context: how text is understood ( with text , outside the actual text but related to it. Morpheme: smallest meaningful unit of language that carries meaning: con-text, care-ful-ly, not the same as syllables, allomorph: variant of a morpheme. Found in specific positions within the word. Variants (allomorphs): -s or es always spelled s, not always pronounced s (z or iz) (d, b, g = z; t, p, k = s: phonemes. Units of the sound system of language. Meaning changes when you replace on phoneme to another. Aspirated ph occurs at the beginning of a stressed syllable. Aspirated and unaspirated are in complementary or mutually exclusive distribution: allophones sound similar but difference depends on position.

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