Franz boas 1858-1942: with kwakwaka"wakw (kwakiutl) family, vancouver island, 1894, each culture is a complex of language, culture, and physical type, and none is inferior to any other, a higher culture. Cultural relativism: an extreme idea each culture has its own values, which may be diff from other culture and if you belong to one culture you should not judge another. There are no universal standards of progress (or of mortality) . Why linguistics and semiotics in anthropology: anthropology study of what it means to be human, why language, why semiotics? (what is semiotics?) Communication: classic ( structuralist ) communication model, speaker (sender), channel, hearer (receiver, encoding, assumes that there is an uncoded message independent of language, this is probably not true and decoding. A classic ( saussurean ) view of signification: ferdinand de saussure. January 27th, 2011: signifier + signified = sign. : arbitrary relation to signified ( referent : symbol.