ANT100Y1: Archaeology Lecture One.
Archaeology Data and Dating
⁃ the matrices in which artificats, ecofacts, sites and other human-manufactured features
or results of past human action are found
⁃ not necessarily found below ground+ eg: 'cultural landscapes'
⁃ Chaco Phenomenon – the extensive inter-regional exchange, 650 kms of roads,
stairways, ramps in NW NM ca. AD 1100 (in New Mexico) + trade exchange
activities existed within people who lived within this site of the world + one of
the cultural landscapes
Three Typical Elements of Archaeological Research
⁃ Observed material culture
⁃ + past activities
⁃ Unobserved (past) human/non-human activity
⁃ Interpretation of (past) human activity
⁃ + artifacts+ features+ ecofacts
⁃ Spatial+ activity areas+ sites+ regions
⁃ any portable object whose form has been shaped (ie: manufactured or modified) by
way of human activity+ Egyptian art, pottery.
⁃ non-portable material evidence of human activity (eg: hearths, storage pits, postholes)
⁃ + ie: Kelly Site Excavation Plan+ Rock art → part of 'cultural landscape'
⁃ + Pyramids, Giza
⁃ non-artifactual material evidence of human activity
⁃ can be further subdivided into Macrofossils and Microfossils
⁃ + visible to the naked eye (ie: kernel of corn)
⁃ + can be retrieved through flotation or normal excavation procedures
⁃ Water separation of soil matrices
⁃ used primarily to recover macrofossils
⁃ lighter materials float to the surface, caught in sieves
⁃ Considerations: aperture size of mesh (tied to research design)
⁃ + eg: pollen, phytoliths found in soils or residues adhering to artifacts + visible only
under high-power magnification, 200x or greater