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Lecture 18

ANT100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Tutsi, Pastoralism, Hutu


Course Code
Shawn Lehman

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ANT100 – 03/17/2016
How the economy influences cultural and social patterns (super structure)
-Human survival cant exist without providing people with goods, humans require
-It is a way to change the environment to sustain human life
-People work in groups to reach these goals, to accomplish the obtaining of all of these
things, you need to work in a group (families)
-Groups are studied to determine how they accomplish it (economic anthropology)
-Anthropologists are not interested in general rules, large scale interaction, they want to
see how people function in real life, on a relatively small scale
ouse field work, use ethnographic method (describing literally, observing intensely)
-Marx – base and superstructure
oNot a communist
oBase (economy; means of production, relations of production)
oSuperstructure (government, family, religion, education, culture)
oMeans: they find something in nature, they do something with it, infrastructure
oRelations: social relationships required by the economy
oMeans and relations change in different economic systems
- Revised the base and the superstructure influence each other, mutual
Relationship or base and superstructure in different economic systems
-Different superstructures correlate with different kinds of bases (education, form of
Economies have different means and relations
-Can be arranged historically by their appearance
-All of them co-exist, they may be in conflict
-Foraging; hunter/gatherer
oMinimal manipulation of nature
oUpper Paleolithic (50-40 KYA)
oLarge groups, hunting herds
oInuit, Australian aborigines
oSuperstructures: egalitarian, not even chiefs, no recording, no hereditary, division
of labour exists but is rudimentary, sexual freedom (relatively informal), informal
authorities (popular ones are listened to), little surplus (they use all they collect),
religion focuses on nature, natural objects may be imagined as living
-Pastoralism; nomads, herding
oNeolithic, 12-10 KYA
oMove around very large pieces of territory
oDepends on domesticated animals (sheep, goats, cows)
oLarge settlements, there was surplus, society became more complex
oMen own ore production, more gender differentiation, more differences among
oSuperstructure: male domination, unequal, chiefs, states, empires, conflicts with
neighbours, powerful god(s), military prowess, Abraham (religion)
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