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Lecture 3

ANT336- Week 3.docx

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ANT336- Week 3 Futuyma reading  Discussion Qs at end  Modes of selection (more than just directional)  Types of fitness (how does he describe inclusive fitness?)  Pleiotropy  Hox genes (how do they fit into criteria for good adaptationist story?) Inferences about past behaviours  Does this particular fossil rep. adult, junior form?  What the fossil looks like and whether it has characteristics associated with a specific species  How do we construct a story about this fossil, we need to rely on analogies  Omnivorous  New features we absolutely have to have ; terrestrial bipedalism and reduced canine size  Bipedalism has its pros and cons (cons= lower back pain, support of the organs is lowered as they are no longer contained in the rib cage fully, distal appendages have shifted and the longitudinal arch has shifted) Why and how did the new features arise?  We became bipeds due to our inherent aggressive behaviour, to be bipedal meant you would have your arms free to hold weapons, to hunt and to display dominance (killer ape hypothesis)  The tong child, dart was trying to understand the tong child and his vision of osteodontokeratic (tools were made out of bones, teeth and horn) culture of australopithecines  Chimpanzee model  Being a biped helps you to cool off better in warmer environments  They have hair to deal with the heat however in hot sunny climates everybody shaves their head  Energy efficiency is important Many options, some implausible  Aquatic Ape Hypothesis= where do we find fossil deposits? Near bodies of fresh water because they might have been swimming or they lived in the water! Our ancestors left the trees and spent their time in and around the water, which explains the body hair loss for efficiency of swimming, explains why head hair was retained so infants had something to
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