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Lecture 4

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Gary Coupland

LECTURE 4 – January, 27, 2013 South of the Ice, Cont’d California Archaic: Key Themes - Diffuse economy (broad spectrum); seasonal migrations part of scheduled annual round - Increasingly specialized technology for resource acquisition (baskets, seed beaters, milling stones, etc.) - Adaptation to new ecological zones (different micro-environments): Coast Littoral; Coastal and Interior Parklands; Oak-Pine-Grass Transition; Montane Coniferous; Interior Lakes; Desert Playas, Riverine Southern California - The San Dieguito Tradition o Spread throughout southern and south eastern California, 10-8 ka; focus on chaparral zone (semi-desert type of environment with a lot of drought tolerant plant and animal species – and humans that could survive with this subsistence) – and south coast? o “classic” Archaic pattern: small groups (10-20); highly mobile; “foragers”; egalitarian social relation(s) o Subsistence: chaparral-related resources – mule deer, rabbits, plants o Not much different from Paleoindian, except change from big game hunting Middle Archaic (8-6 ka) - The Encinitas Tradition o Middle and Late Archaic tradition (8-4 ka) in Southern California o Small h-g groups (20-50); adaptation to chaparral zone – developed from San Dieguito o But tool kit more elaborate; beginning use of coastal resources (shellfish, sea mammals) - The Millingstone Horizon o One of the Encinitas tradition cultures (8-3.5 ka); located along S. California coast o Although “coastal”, little use of coastal resources; modest amount of littoral resources, no deep water species o Artifact assemblages feature millingstones and manos, for seed grinding; little evidence of acorn use (i.e. pestle and mortar) o High settlement mobility; little use of storage; forager pattern: no major changes in lifestyle from San Dieguito The Pacific Period: The Late Holocene - Important cultural changes in S. California begin within last 3500 years; typical of Formative stage elsewhere in New World 1. Large villages 2. High population density 3. Resource intensification (adaptation to marine resources, acorns) 4. Elaborate exchange system (shell beads) 5. CHG (Complex hunter gatherers) The Early and Middle Pacific Period - The Campbell Tradition o 4-1.5 ka; found along S. Cal. Coast and Channel Islands o Much greater adaptation to littoral and marine resources – shellfish and sea mammals both important o
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