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Sherry Fukuzawa

ANT1012013BiologyEvolutionA Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution1 Origin MythsAll human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humansUniversal ExplanationsHow humans came into existenceRelationship of humansother animalsHow humans are the ultimate products of creation2 Fixity of SpeciesSpecies once created can never changeReflected powerful religious system in EuropeAccepted that all living things created by God3 Great Chain of Beingstth1 proposed by Aristotle in 4 century BCAll animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex Humans at top of hierarchy4 GenusSpecies John Ray17 centurySaw that certain plantsanimals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability reproduce with one another and produce viable offspringPlaced reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called speciesRecognized that some species shared similarities called genusSo by 1600s the biological criterion of reproduction was used to define species just like today 5 Systema Natura Linnaeus 1735Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories Developed a method of classifying both plants and animals Used binomial nomenclature the convention established by Linnaeus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to speciesStandardized Rays speciesgenusadded classorderHis four level system genus species class and order became the basis for taxonomy classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationshipsPut humans in the genus Homo classified humans with animals Was controversial because at the time is was thought that humans made in Gods image should be considered unique and separate from the animal kingdom creationist6 Uniformitarianism Lyell 1833Forces such as wind water erosion local flooding frost decomposition of vegetation volcanoes and earthquakes and glacial movements had all contributed in the past to produce the geological landscape that exists in the present The fact that these processes still occur indicates that geological change is still happening and that the forces driving such change were consistent or UNIFORM over time So even though various aspects of the earths surface climate plants animals land surfaces are variable through time the UNDERLYING PROCESSESS that influence them are constant Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the pastuniformcontinuous in natureFor such slow acting process to produce momentous change the earth would have to be a lot older than previously suspectedTime scale of the earth is in millions of years not thousands creationist7 Survival of the Fittest Malthus 1798Speculated thatHuman populations multiply geometricallyFood resources grow arithmetically
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