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University of Toronto St. George

ANT100 NOVEMBER 17 2011 LECTURE 3 BECOMING HUMANOrigins of humanityArcheoligcal evidence of earliest tool use cladistics image forever subject to change and always rewritten on the left the right image is illustration with emergence of homo habilisCultural chronology lower paleothic 25 mya to 300kya homo habilis oldowan h erectus acheulian Middle paleothic 300kya to 40kya depends on regionNeanderthal MousterianUpper paleothic 40 kya 14kya modern humans aurignacian gravettian Early tool use the oldowan earliest documented hominin technology beginning of the lower paleothic period documented bc earliest to exist in arch record none survived these were stone tools signal beging lower paleo sequence not anything complex compare to upper paleo found e Africa eg northern Tanzania simple tools east Africa olduvai gorge 25 mya coincides with the emergence of hom habilis consists of large pebble choppers and flakes flakes could have been used for a variety of tasks Olduvai gorge very simple tools utilized mean they were used Home erectus transition to more advanced hominin forms ie h erectus circa 19mya a transition species out of homo habilis first to use fire 15 mya swartkrans south Africa first to leave Africa adapted to a number of environments eg Europe se asia by 18 mya previous before were in Africa in the east The acheulian tradition oldawan tech gives way to acheulian by 15 mya lasts until 60000 BP chopper and flakes give way to more advanced tool tech more suffisticated Africa western Europe and sw asia se asia different tool technology due to environment choppersflake tools cleavers and hand axes regional availabilityAcheulian cleaver acts as a wedge split bone to extract marrow acheulian handaxe unique form teardropAcheulian hand axe prepared core technology evidence of skill knapping techniquessignificant development needs skill lots of it symmetry around long axis cognitive development mental templates need to map it and plan ahead brain much more developed by this time bifacially worked multipurpose tools woodworking butchery scrapping skinsNeanderthals emerge 150kya last until roughly 30kya seen some in 26000 flourished in Europe particulary western Europe and sw asia contentious hominin designation earliest remains found in the 50s not sure how closely they relate to humans recent thought close to humans new evidence period of overlap Neanderthal and anatomically correct humans moving into regions
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