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ANT100Y1: Lecture 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Shawn Lehman

Chapter 69 Hominins Human VariationForensic Anthropology Some key Australopithecines The First Real Hominins y Australopithecus anamensis y Australopithecus afarensis y Australopithecus africanus y Australopithecus aethiopicus y Australopithecus boisei y Australopithecus robustusAustralopithecus anamensisy Kanapoi Kenya y 4339 MYA y Tooth row is parallel apelike y Partial tibia provides strong evidence for bipedality y Primitive apelike cranial morphology and a derived humanlike postcranial morphology Australopithecus afarensis y Ethiopia Hadar Omo and Fejej and Tanzania Laetoli y 4230 MYA y Many specimens y Complex morphology exhibiting some apelike traits eg sagittal crests and homininlike traits eg valgus knee y Single sexually dimorphic species or two species y Laetoli Footprints y 36 MYA in Laetoli Tanzania y Demonstrate that early hominins were bipedals y Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot unlike in chimpanzees y Gait was heelstrike followed by toeoff the way modern humans walkAustralopithecus africanusy Various sites in South Africa y 3023 MYA y Average brain is 458 cc y Dental features differ from those in A afarensis y Postcranial features similar to those in A afarensisAustralopithecus aethiopicusy West Turkana Kenya y 2723 MYA y Large face huge zygomatics large skull crests and enormous teeth y Remarkably primitive hominin at such a late date
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