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November 19th Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Chazan

11/19/12 Middle Paleolithic  Transition from Lower to Middle Paleolithic is difficult to define  Date roughly 200,000 to 30,000 Middle Paleolithic Typology  Narrow range of tool types dominated by side scrapers  Show a lack of variation  Biggest difference between flakes are how they are retouched  Concave side scraper: curved edge  Simple side scraper: straight edge Interpretation of Middle Paleolithic Stone Tools:  Francois Bordes’ Typology  Method: cumulative graphs  Quantified his typology  Interpretation: different industries represent culture groups  His interpretation of Neanderthal society was that they lived in tribes, and that the differences in his graphs represented the different ethnic tribes “Imagine a group of Neanderthals going, ‘Hey, guys, go count their side scrapers, and if they have more than 7% simple concave side scrapers, we MASSACRE THEM’.”  Binford/Bordes debate: Culture vs. Function Harold Dibble:  Method: Metrical Analysis  Interpretation: Tool types reflect stages in resharpening  Frison effect  The typology isn’t measuring type, its measuring the objects in the usage stages of their life  Advocating the view that Neanderthals do not have culture, group identities, or symbolism. FUNCTION. Eric Boeda:  Method: Technological Analysis  Interpretation: Different industries reflect learned patterns of behavior  Let’s make the stone tools!  In order to make the stone tools like the Neanderthals did, they needed skill and knowledge, and they followed certain rules. They were consistent.  We learn from his work that Neanderthals grew up in societies where they learned skills that were appropriate for their society; there WAS culture.  They learn very specific patters of behavior that was distinctive of their
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