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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - pp. 230-232; 288-297, Ancient North America

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Christopher Watts

Lecture 5Ancient North AmericaMonday October 17 2011609 PM North America can be divided Artic and Subarctic Eastern Woodlands Plains Southwest InteriorGreat Basin and West Coast IntroductionColonization of NA after 15 kya thousand years agooEarliest NA groups known as Paleoindians only about a dozen in southern Ontario ca 10 kya in NA broad spectrum economies take advantage of all types of resourcesoArchaic Period populations after 10 kyaohg huntersgatherers small mammals fish seeds and nuts broad spectrum The SWIntroductionMajor cultural traditions in the archaeology of the Greater Southwest Utah New Mexico ColoradoArizonaoHohokam AD 3001500oMogollon 300 BCca AD 1150oAncestral Pueblo Anasazi AD 1present These traditions grew out of earlier Archaic cultures These Archaic traditionsWere largely hg even after they adopted early var of maize ca 2000 BCSelection and hybridization gave rise to more productive variety maz de ocho ca 500 BC ca 500 BCCombined maz de ocho with beanThose that were more productive would be replanted selection and hybridization AdvantagesoPlanting beans returns nitrogen to the soil because corn does notoLysine in beans provides essential amino acid Gradual intensification after 500 BC dietary staple by ca AD 700 pithouse to pueblo transitionDifferent adoption process compared to ENA Eastern North AmericaShift from hg to agriculture after AD 700much more economically important than it was before The HohokamLocated in southern AZ northern MexicooCentred on Gila and Salt Rivers
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