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Lecture

ANT203.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT203Y1
Professor
Maryam Nargolwalla

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ANT203 November 22, 2011 From last lecture: Locomotion Primate forelimbs  human o emphasis on lower limbs o upper limbs not as much o humerus:  proximal end has large joint surface  mobility at that joint or weight bearing joint  deltoid muscles: important for lifting arms, to 90 degrees  well developed attachment sites o radius  proximal end very circular = rotation  distal end quite large, joins to wrist  biceps not as massive because not hanging by arms, not arm dependent o ulna  not a lot of bone (olecranon process)  does not articulate with carpals (wrist) so gives more mobility  gorilla o humerus: longer, curvature, bone it robust (very strong and well made, can stand a lot of strain)  proximal end made for mobility and weight bearing (both)  distal end: joint capable of full extension and hyperextension  good for knuckle walking/hanging selves in tree o bones make selves stronger by curving o radius  curvature  equal emphasis  very circular = rotation  distal end quite large – joins to wrist  large surface area for motion at wrist joint  biceps well developed, noticeable bump on bone for attachment o ulna  not a lot of bone (olecranon process)  long ulna  very curved for strength  does not articulate with carpals (wrist) so gives more mobility  baboons o arboreal o restricted shoulder joint  cannot reach arms above head  not as much mobility o humerus  proximal end is restricted  distal end is arms cannot fully extend because has flexed forelimbs, running on trees want to keep arms close to body as possible for balance  elbows cannot fully extend o radius  proximal end not as circular, not as much movement  distal end very small  do not want a lot of motion at wrists when running through trees  want wrists to be stable  processive bone: is not only bone that articulates with wrist  articulate with both radius and ulna  gives stability through joint because stabilizes on both sides of wrist  want hand to move in same direction o ulna  has projection of bone  articulates with wrist to give more stability Primate hands  human o emphasis on precision, so not as large o phalanges: not too long  gracile: not a lot of bone, not knuckle walking, no weight resting on them o thumbs  huge emphasis  for precision  gorilla o designed for grasping o very large o bones are bigger, larger, longer, and more robust o need to withstand their weight o bones slightly curved 
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