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Lecture 5

Nature of Humans Lecture 5.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT203Y1
Professor
Keriann Mc Googan
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 5 Oct 10, ANT203Y1Y  Oct 23 Test  1 hour long, followed by lecture  Fill-in-the-blank, multiple choice (scantron, bring pencil), and short answer  Lecture, chapters, and short film from next week  Last class  Heredity and evolution  Mendel’s experiments  Patterns of inheritance  Mendelian vs. polygenetic  Modern evolution theory  Natural selection and behaviour (didn’t get to it, this class)  This Class: Natural Selection and Behaviour  Behaviour is flexible  I.e. soapberry bug and mate guarding  Seed-eating insect studied by Scott Harrell (?)  Males will mount females and copulate for about 10 minutes to transfer sperm  Males will stay in that position for up to hours, called “mate guarding”  1. Character must vary  Variable patterns – some mate guarded a lot, others more in response to sex ration  2. Variance affects fitness  Males with more flexible variable strategies tended to have higher fitness  3. Character is heritable  Males had same strategies as their fathers  What is observed behaviour?  Crested Macaques warn each other of a nearby predator through vocalisations  Chimpanzees learn to crack open nuts with a rock, and the babies learn this through observation  What could have provoked this behaviour?  What is the outcome?  Higher fitness  What are the possible advantages of this behaviour?  Higher fitness  This class: Macroevolution  Microevolution vs. Macroevolution  Micro  How populations change over time  Affect morphology, physiology, and behaviour of a particular species in a particular environment  E.g. beak size in the Galapagos finches on Daphne major  Macro  Large-scale evolution  How are new species, genera, families, etc. created and formed over time?  E.g. the origin of humans  Classification  How do we organise the world’s biodiversity?  Classify biodiversity into categories  Starting point: physical similarities, but MUST indicate evolutionary relationships  Homology – similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor  Limbs  Analogy – similarities based ONLY on common function, no evolutionary descent  Spider legs and human legs  Homoplasy – separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of individuals  Sugar gliders and flying squirrels  Taxonomy  Linnaeus 18 century  Only useful traits in taxonomy are indicative of evolutionary descent  Species, genus, family, superfamily  Similarities  1. Trace evolutionary relationships, construct classifications  2. Organisms compared using specific features (aka characters), some more important than others  3. Both use homologies  Cladistics  More rigorous definition of what kind of homologies are most useful  Focus on derived t
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