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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - History of Anthropology - September 25.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Tania Li

September 25, 2012. Lecture 3 – History of Anthropology Colonialism and Capitalism  Colonialism: profit and “improvement” o “dual mandate” (two arguments for colonialism ^) o Idea was not only to make money but also to “improve” the lives of natives; to help them be healthier, know how to better take advantage of their environment, teach them new technologies/methods of doing things  Capitalism: production for purpose of profit o From C – M – C to M – C – M+ (commodity and merchants) o CMC E.g., colonials coming to Canada and trading for beaver pelts to send back to Europe for sale; minimal payment for something far more valuable o MCM E.g., controlling costs via ownership of land and labour, predicting costs of labour and raw materials to ensure maximum profit in the end  Owning labour through taxation (forcing people to work for you so they can make the money to pay taxes)  Owning land through mere forceful acquisition, sometimes kicking natives out of their own land, forcing them to work in colonists’ mines/farms/etc.  Settlers’ Colonialism: not merely owning the land and the people for profit, but also for settlement of extra European populations; extra people that can also be turned into labour and a means of profit  Means of production: land, labour, resources – must become commodities; private property; exclusive use o Creates two kinds (or classes) of people; those that own the means of production and those that don’t (bourgeoisie and proletariat)  Land: myth of wild, frontier = natives not using it o Ours to take; doctrine of “terra nullius” (empty land to which no one claims); conquest (our arrogant assumption that natives don’t know how to use their land and that we can use it better) o Religious twist on it: God gave us gifts and we should be using them, it is our religious duty to accept and appreciate His gifts o Different cultural views on proper land use  Labour: enslave; or cut people off from access to resources, make them pay taxes, train/discipline = myth of “lazy native” o Laziness a myth because natives only became disciplined and consistent workers when they had absolutely no choice; as long as they still had some land or resources left to them to make a living they would not show up to work for colonials and thus appeared as “lazy”  Law: to support and guarantee this o Begins as a c
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