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Lecture

Lecture7b.pdf

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Department
Archaeology
Course
ARH306Y1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
N/A

Description
o Not  exclusive   o Contaminants   • Streak  -­‐  colour  when  mineral  ground  to  a  fine  powder  on  streak  plate   § E.g.  hematit  –  red/brown   o Silicate  minerals  do  not  streak   § Tend  to  be  harder  than  the  ceramic  plate   Hardness  (scrathability)   • Moh’s  hardness  scale  (1-­‐10)   • Talc  (very  soft)  =  1   o Starts  off  as  a  rock,  basalt   o Weathered  and  becomes  soft   • Diamond  =  10   • Fingernail  is  somewhere  between  gypsum  (2)  and  calcite  (3)   • Hardest  knife  blade  is  between  apatite  (5)  and  feldspar  (6)   • Corundum  (9)  and  diamond  (10)  are  used  as  abrasives;  sandpaper   • Not  a  linear  scale;  large  gaps  between  some   Mineral  cleavage   § The  shape  of  mineral  when  broken  (Fig.  5.19)   § Simplest  is  mica   o Breaks  into  sheets  like  books   § Feldspar  has  2  directions  of  cleavage,  90  to  each  other   § Amphiboles  has  2,  not  perpendicular   § Rock  salt  –  halite,  3  directions   Crystallosgraphy:  the  study  of  crystal  shapes  (Fig.  5.15)   § Each  mineral  has  a  different  habit   § Recurring  crystal  shapes     § Canada’s  mineral  exports  (approx.  $80  billion)   o Need  people  prospecting   o Most  metals  are  from  the  shield  up  north   § Metamorphic  and  igneous   o In  the  south  there  are  sedimentary   o Toronto  is  the  world’s  capital  for  mining  finance   o Prospectors  need  developers  to  generate  finances  for  mines   Bancroft  Gemboree  held  first  weekend  of  August   § Mineral  capital  of  Canada   § Great  variety   Sedimentary  rocks  (facies  –  appearance  of  or  face)   § Very  often,  rocks  are  just  grouped  into  facies  and  cannot  be  positively   identified  in  field   § Form  from  sediments  eroded  from  older  rocks  and  transported  by  water,  ice,   or  air   § Compacted,  cemented  &  lithified  into  clastic  sedimentary  rocks   o Conglomerate   § Cemented  gravel   § 2  to  64  mm  
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