January 29, 2014
FAH207 Greek and Roman Art Lecture 4
Aristodikos Kouros, from Attica, c. 500 BC
Marble. One of the very late Kouros, more naturalistic. Arms are detached from the sides,
because of this they were delicate and arms fell off. Musculature more delicate, not clear
cut and linear anatomical details instead fully 3D. Hairstyle has changed, gotten shorter.
Archaic smile disappeared, left foot forward indication of potential for movement and
vitality not shown here.
“Piraeus” Apollo c. 500 BC
Life sized bronze statue. Found in shipwreck. Not as heavy as stone since it is hollow.
Versatility of bronze medium, hands and arms now completely broken away from its
body and preserved since durable material. Instead of left foot forward it’s the right foot
and he is holding something in front of him most likely a libation bowl and bow and
Core of terracotta mostly, conforms of overall form of sculpture add layer of wax then
sculpt the wax, cover in 2 layer of terracotta, bronze pins keep things in place,
especially when heated and wax melts away leaving hollow space, were pored in bronze
lets it cool. Still in archaic style as can be seen by the hair although head is tilted
downward which is more common during classical period. Notion of frontality being
The GrecoPersian Wars: 499 – 449 BCE
Persian Invasion of Greece: 492 479 BCE
Battle of Marathon 490
–First invasion when Persia attacked Greece in the mainland. Athenians won, had a little
help from neighbouring city.
Battle of Thermopylae 480
–Second invasion by Persians. Spartan soldiers held Persians long enough to make a
Sack of Athens/Acropolis 480
–Persians took a lot of artworks that they carried off and destroyed.
Battle of Salamis and Plataea 480/479
2 invasion comes to an end in naval battles
Oath of Platea
Said wouldn’t rebuild acropolis Persians destroyed wanted to be reminded of how awful
the Persians were. Most likely didn’t have the resources. January 29, 2014
The Early Classical Period of Sculpture –
“Severe Style” (nickname) – 480 – 450 BCE
The Kritios Boy, Kouros attributed to the sculptor Kritios
Shifting of the weight to one leg, his left leg is where all the weight is, right leg has no
weight thus hips the way they are. No shifting of shoulder line. “Ponderation” =related to
gravity. “Perserschutt” (Persian Debris). Head and body found separately. Persians
deliberately cut heads off of sculptures. The calf bearer carrying sacrificial animal to
Harmodios. Virtue to display hair as an aristocrat. Rolled hair up all around his head,
popular with athletes. Part of 2 person statue group. Kritios worked on this sculpture
along with someone else. Now Kritios Boys head is facing slightly to the right and looks
sombre which is typical of this period.
The Blond Boy
Name derives from yellow pigment found on hair. Sombre expression. Heavy eyelids,
characteristic of severe style period.
The Tyrannicides. Roman copies of c.477 BC (after sack of Athens) Greek bronzes.
by Kritios and Nesiotes. Marble. Height 6 ft 5 ins (1.95 m). National Museum,
They (Harmodios and Aristogeiton) killed the tyrant Hipparchus, at end of 6 century and
were the preeminent symbol of democracy to ancient Athenians. Ushered in era of
democracy. These statues were taken as war booty by Persians during their sack of
Athens. First public commemoration of Athenian citizens allowed in the agora. They
were immediately replaced as soon as they were stolen.
The young Harmodios was represented raising his sword over his head, ready to deliver a
slashing downward stroke.
Greek Democratic Reform
Peisistratos Tyrant: 561527 BCE
Hipparchus Slain: 514 BCE –wasn’t the tyrant at the time, they killed him after that
Hippias Overthrown: 510 BCE
Kleisthenes Democratic Reform: 508 BCE
Kleishtenes changed laws in Athens like before in archaic period aristocrats were part of
ruling power of Athens he changed his from 4 to 10 tribes from demes about the regions
and not the family anymore. 500 council members, assembly met once per week at least:
quorum of 6000 was needed to pass any law.