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FAH 260 Lecture #12 (partial) .doc

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The Artistic Landscape of East Asia: Colony/Modernity/reproduction Lecture #12, April 1, 2013. Slide #1 – Title Visual, human landscape of 18 cent. East Asia Slide #2 L: Anon., Portrait of Zhai Yinbao, 1760 R: Lang Shining (Giuseppe Castiglion), Inauguration Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor, 1736. What it means to paint Manchus in hybrid Chinese-Italian style. Slide #3 Portrait of Rolpay Dorge, 1727. R: Giuseppe Castiglione, Portrait of the Qianlong emperor, circa 1736. Seals – approved portrait in his old age Guru and emperor: theocratic power and use of the other to advance theocratic power. Slide #4 L: The Great Fifth Dalai Lama and the Qing Shunzhi Emepror in the Baohedian, Beijing, ca. 1653 R: Ten Thousand Dharmas return as One The world after 1644 (that is, after the Manchu Conquest). Other and politics of conquest and consolidation. While image at Left pplaces Dalaia lama in Beijing, Ten Thousan is a quote from a mural in the Potala palace in Lhasa, Tibet, which records meeting of 5 Dalai Lama Ngawang Losang Gyatso (1617-1682) with the Shunzhi emperor. Slide #5 L: Zanabazar (1625-1723), White Tara, circa 1680s R: Cloisonné, with Européenerie, 18 cent., China Looking at other Looking at Tibet Looking at Europe Castiglione a Jesuit Proest Missions and their means of addressing Other Jennifer Purtle Page 1 2/9/2014 Slide #6 L: Kamegama pot, Edo, from Nagasaki R: Katsu shika Hokusai wakanran zatsuwa, 1803. The cast of the image at right: Right = Chinese man Center = Japanese woman Left = Dutch man Gendering, graphically representing both customs and hierarchy among these by reading right to left. Left image is Japanese pot from Nagasaki – principal Japanese port for trade with China – that depicts a Chinese in a pot in the blue-and-white style of Chinese porcelain. Slide #7 L: Qianlong Tributaries Scroll, 1760 R: Iwasaki Kan’en, Fritz von Siebold, 1826. Inscription details the date and color of Siebold’s clothing. Qianlong scroll depicts an Englishman; Siebold is a German. Getting a good and detailed look at all kinds of other. East Asian visual landscape -- at least in China and Japan, unified by spectatorship and representation of the Other. Yet a basic inability to render the human body when it is perceived to be other – note the odd neck structures in both images, odder still because the skeletal form of the neck has no racial, ethnic type. Literally rendering – in representation – foreigners stranger appearing than they actually are. Slide #8 L: Qianlong Tributaries Scroll, 1760 R: Detail of scroll showing Dutch factory on the Island of Deshima, Nagasaki, ca. 1700. VOC or Dutch East India company established in 1602, > monopoly in trading with Japan. Factory: actually a warehouse. Nagasaki as a Japanese port city open to Dutch trade following centuries of Japanese isolationism. Chromatically typing people even this early. Jennifer Purtle Page 2 2/9/2014 Cantonese terms gwaimoi and gwailo perhaps having very early genesis as well. Slide #9 L: Anon., Qianlong in Euro dress R: Fragrant Concubine (female, Chinese name = Xiangfei) in Western, male armor. In re today’s topics of colonies, modernity, and reproduction, what is being reproduced here? Why? What does hybrid representation, and cross-dressing – both across ethnic and gender lines do? Does it articulate power relations, and if so how do these relate to ideas or modernity? How are these ideas reproduced? Slide #10 L: Jean Bérain, Kangxi (ex Nieuhoff), Trianon de Porcelaine, Porcelain Pagoda Nanjing Real and simulation reinforcing each other, creating, reproducing making China for a European audience and perhaps for the Chinese court and its elites as well. Circulation/reproduction/simulation of goods Slide #11 L: Jiajing 1516 ish C: Medici 1587 R: Meissen, circa 1708 Circulation, reproduction, simulation of goods. Is modernity a temporal space in which reproduction determines cultural and power relations? Most freuquently, in cases of colonialism, this is true. Since China is never fully colonized, power relations are created through trade only. Slide #12 L: Blue and white jar from Jingdezhen, Ming dynasty. C: Meissen vase, circa 1725. R: Kesi tapestry, Ming dynasty. Reproducing China from its actual material culture traded to Europe, yet “reproducing” something that was never produced! Using visual and material evidence of China to fashion one’s own China. Jennifer Purtle Page 3 2/9/2014 Pre-Colonial mode of reproduction of cultural forms that is on the leading edge of what we call modernity. Slide #13 L: Japanisches Palais, Dresden destroyed 1945, rebuilt 1946 R: Japanisches Palais, Dresden destroyed 1945, rebuilt 1946 Court architect Matthias Poppelmann conversted a previous “Dutch Palace” into a Japanese palace by substituting Japanese figures on the outside the building. Slide #14 L: Japanisches Palais, Dresden destroyed 1945, rebuilt 1946 R: Japanisches Palais, Dresden destroyed 1945, rebuilt 1946 Making the Other, making the subject. Slide #15 L: Japanisches Palais, Dresden destroyed 1945, rebuilt 1946 R: Japanisches Palais, Dresden destroyed 1945, rebuilt 1946 Slide #16 C: Pagodenburg, Nymphenburg, 1716-1719, Josef Effner (1687-1748) Prince Elector Max Emanuel of bavaria had served as a governor general in the Netherlands, got Dutch taste for things Asian, and had his own Asian building built on the site of the Nymphenburg Palace. Slide #17 C: Pagodenburg, Nymphenburg, 1716-1719, Josef Effner (1687-1748) Slide #18 C: Pagodenburg, Nymphenburg, 1716-1719, Josef Effner (1687-1748) Material world/habitat of the 18 century: Aristocratic life is especially cosmopolitan given the speed of transport and the clumsy means of circulating people, things, ideas from disparate parts of the globe. This is the first stage of a truly global world, one remarkable for how global it is given the limitations of the mechanisms by which global networks are forged and maintained. Slide #19 L: François Boucher (1703-1770), L’empereur de la Chine, 1742. R: Figurine of Louis XIV What it is for two political and cultural entities to reproduce one another! Jennifer Purtle Page 4 2/9/2014 Slide #20 L: Sans Souci, Voltaire zimmer or “Voltaire Room,” zimmer = “room” in German, 1745-47. R: Yongzheng bottle, 1723-1736. Voltaire on China: “We have calumniated the Chinese merely because they differ from us in their system of metaphysics. We should rather admire in them two articles of merit, which at once condemn the superstitions of the pagans and the morals of the Christians. The religion of their learned men was never dishonored by fables, nor stained with quarrels or civil wars. In the very act of charging the government of that vast empire with atheism, we have been so inconsistent as to accuse it of idolatry; an imputation that refutes itself. The great misunderstanding that prevails concerning the rites of the Chinese arose from our judging their customs by our own; for we carry our prejudices, and spirit of contentional along with us, even to the extremities of the earth.” (Spence, 98). Reproducing China -- the medium and the cultural/political entity -- in different size and scale. Like a genie in bottle effect – the exterior of the Yongzheng bottle and of enameled porcelain of this type turned to decorate the interior not the exterior. Process of enamelling porcelain. This bottle made with basic blue and white underglaze process. Body is potted, allowed to dry to leather hard stage. Then design is painted in blue cobalt, the piece is dipped in clear glaze and fired at 1250 degrees centigrade. After the piece has cooled, yellow enamel – ground glass particles in suspension – is painted over the body of the piece, which is subsequently fired at 900 degrees centigrade so as not to curdle or crack the enamel which cannot be fired as high as porcelain must be fired to fuse properly. Slide #21 L: Chinese tea house, Sans Souci, 1754-1757. R: Chinese porcelain in French ormolu mounts, circa 1760-80. Replicating certain ideas about China in variable ways: creating in these cases a chromatic sense of China; tea house is very much like porcelain in gilt bronze mounts; almost like a celadon green Chinese tea bowl turned upside down and placed in mounts. Slide #22 C: Chinese tea house, Sans Souci, 1754-1757. Prussian aristocrat’s critique; despite this, the teahouse embodies the fanciful ways in Jennifer Purtle Page 5 2/9/2014 which China was being fabricated in 18 century Europe. “We know, at any rate, that the Chinese, though they put pagods and images of their gods inside their temples, did not put them on their roofs. Still less do they place effigies of themselves drinking tea or smoking pipes of tobacco [a New World practice introduced to China by Europeans] in company in front of their houses. And whether thay planted palm trees at regular intervals, in order later on, when they were sufficiently grown, to build roofs on their green stems and to erect dwelling houses under them is extremely doubtful. Here, however, the architect must be excused, since he had not a free hand but had to follow a design drawn by the King; and generally speaking, the house would not have been sufficiently characteristic and distinct had not these palm-trees and effigies of Chinese amusing themselves introduced an obviously Chinese element, seeing that neither real palm treest nor real Chinese were to be had.” (Honour, 113) Consciousness of reproduction. Slide #23 C: Drottningholm, 1753 Letter of Queen Louisa Ulrika who gets Drottningholm as a birthday present: “There was a main room decorated in exquisite Indian style with four big porcelain vases, one in each corner. In the other rooms there were old Japanese lacquer cabinetrs and sofas covered with Indian fabrics, all in the finest taste. There was a bedchamber with Indian fabrics on the walls and bed, and the walls were decorated with the finest porceian, pagodas, vases, and birds.” (Jacobson, 94) Most significant points are how China is simulated. Noteworthy that there are two wings of Drottningholm, one laid with actual Chinese porcelain and one with meissen porcelain -- so that China and its imitation are posited as symmetrical Chinas each equally worthy of the designation China, and symmetrically equivalent to one another. Slide #24 C: Bricolage, 18 century, France. Combining bits of China – a round cricket cage and a foo dog with simulations of China Jennifer Purtle Page 6 2/9/2014 to create an idea of China grounded in material synechdoche – that is in which part stands in for the whole, but in which a different whole is realized. In other words, taking parts of the “authentically Chinese” -- the cricket cage and the foo dog – and adding things to make an image of China more “true” to a Western audience than the real thing! This process enables the beginning of colony/modernity/reproduction OED definitions here! Slide #25 L: Arms of Castile (Spain), from Guaman Poma (peru), Nueva Coronica, date. R: Chinese export porcelain bottle with the Arms of Castile (Spain), 1570s. The world of forms is getting even smaller, such that a Spanish motif is circulating not only to the New World, as exemplified in the case of the image from the Peruvian Guaman Poma’s Nueva Coronica (lit. “New Chronicles”), which narrated both indigenous pre-Conquest Peruvian history as well as Spanish history, and in the 1570s export porcelain bottle made in China for use in Europe, likely for a client for whom the Arms of Castile had some significance. Slide #26 L: Jerome Nadal (dates), Illustrated Life of Chirst, date. R: Jaoa de Rocha (dates), Illustrated Life of Chirst, date. As world of forms gets smaller, forms are transmitted and reproduced, even translated. Jerome Nadal’s images of the life of Christ were used in China by the Jesuits in an attempt to convert the Chinese to Christianity, one form of reproduction of cultural forms – that is getting someone from outside one’s own cultural sphere to reproduce the religious forms of that other sphe
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