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Lecture

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3 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO120H1
Professor
Jean Jiang Nash

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47 – water, urea, glycerol – not completely
Down the concentration gradient
Faster diffusion across lipid bilayer
48 – all ions cannot pass through membrane; tiny bit and very slow diffusion of large uncharged polar
molecules
49 – transport polar and charged molecules
Uniqueness in cell membranes in transport proteins, also in cells
Transports specific class of molecules
50 – passive transport includes simple diffusion
Against concentration gradientactive transportneed energy, in form of ATP or secondary transport
51 – net negative charge inside; net positive outsidedue to concentration of ions
Firstpositively charged from high to low concentration
Second – electrical potential gradient determines rate of movement positive charges repelled by exterior
positive charges, attracted to the negative chargesincrease transport of molecules across membrane
Third – membrane potential switched positive charges attracted to negative charges outside
52 – electrochemical gradient first three moving down gradient (facilitated…)
When charged molecules involved, use ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT always
Active transport and facilitated diffusion all need protein transporers
Passive transportwith the gradient; active goes against gradient
(both gradient)
53 – need energy
1. First molecule down gradient: two molecules are moving; one moving down electrochemical
gradient, releasing a bit of energy to transport the second molecule against electrochemical
gradient
2. Second molecule against gradient
3. Second is: ATP hydrolysis; molecule against gradient
4. Third is : Light energy; molecule against gradient
54 – movement down electrochemical gradient
Movement against electrochemical gradient
Yes; No -> concentration + membrane potential ---- this is typical test question
56 – channel proteins, either open or closed
57 – solute specific
Conformational change –when interact with that solute
Solute binding site open one side is now closed, the other side opens
**examples that should be known are in purple
59 – transport one molecule
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Description
47 water, urea, glycerol not completely Down the concentration gradient Faster diffusion across lipid bilayer 48 all ions cannot pass through membrane; tiny bit and very slow diffusion of large uncharged polar molecules 49 transport polar and charged molecules Uniqueness in cell membranes in transport proteins, also in cells Transports specific class of molecules 50 passive transport includes simple diffusion Against concentration gradient active transport need energy, in form of ATP or secondary transport 51 net negative charge inside; net positive outside due to concentration of ions First positively charged from high to low concentration Second electrical potential gradient determines rate of movement positive charges repelled by exterior positive charges, attracted to the negative charges increase transport of molecules across membrane Third membrane potential switched positive charges attracted to negative charges outside 52 electrochemical gradient first three moving down gradient (facilitated) When charged molecules involved,
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