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Lecture 1.docx

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Charles Deber

Lecture 1 -chemicals of life: nucleic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, steroids, Na+, K+, Ca+2, Cl-, PO4 -2 -proteins are the molecules of action -genes are the molecules of information -four nucleotides: adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine (purines= A,G ; pyrimidines= T, C) -hemoglobin = 4 chains of amino acids folded up -backbone conformation of a folded protein ex: carboxypeptidase A direction and propagation of this chain only goes one way -20 commonly-occurring amino acids -amino acids as monomers are in a Zwitterionic form (have a positive and a negative side) -joined through peptide bonds in proteins -unionized form of amino acid -zwitterionic form of amino acid the amino acids are in this form during physiological activities, almost always see amino acids this way -amino acids are structurally asymmetrical (alpha carbon of an amino acid is an asymmetric center) two forms to arrange (L-isomer, D-isomer non super imposable) -all amino acids and proteins have the L configuration D configuration is something that happened after the protein is synthesized not known why -peptide bond is formed between the carboxyl group with the amino group end up eliminating water -properties of the protein components: the amino acids -side chains (R- groups) categorized as: hydrophobic (non-polar), hydrophilic (polar, charged may have Nitrogen and Oxygen functions in them) -hydrophobic amino acids usually occur in the interior of globular proteins -hydrophilic amino acids interact with the polar solvent on the protein solvent allows proteins to be soluble in water -the polar solvent is water Amino acids having aliphatic (have a non-polar form, probably have same components as fats (ex: CH2, Ch3) side chains) ex: glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), valine (Val), leucine (Leu), Isoleucine (lle) -glycine isn’t L since it is not optically active (two H) -alanine is one of the most commonly found amino acid -leucine and isoleucine both have one more methyl group compared to valine isomers of each other Aliphatic hydroxyl si
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