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lec26 intro to metabolism and bioenergetics

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Baker

BCH210H1LECTURE 26Introduction to Metabolism and BioenergeticsMetabolismAnabolism and CatabolismMultiEnzyme Systems Pathways and CyclesBioenergetics and ATPMetabolism Entire network of enzyme reactions in cellsoOrganized in pathways to do things for youTwo major domainsoAnabolism Reactions that synthesize molecules or make more complex moleculesBuilding up reactionsoCatabolism Reactions that degrade larger molecules to smaller molecules Breaking down reactions Anabolism Reactions require energy and produce a wide diversity of macromolecules using a smaller number of simpler moleculesoEg 20 amino acids used to make thousands of proteinsMaking chemical bonds oRequires energy oDivergencethousands of possibilities From simple number of building blocks to huge number of complex molecules put togetherExamples of anabolic pathsoSynthesis of glucose from pyruvateHave to maintain blood sugar to get through the nightoSynthesis of glycogen polyglucose from glucoseMaking long chainsoSynthesis of fatty acids from acetyl CoAMaking fat 1BCH210H1LECTURE 26Catabolism These reactions usually liberate energy and can convert a wide variety of larger molecules into a smaller variety of small molecules oEg thousands of proteins20 amino acidsoConverging changing to simpler molecules smaller numbersReleasing energy breaking bonds Examples of Catabolic PathsoGlycolysis Breakdown of glucose 6C to 2 pyruvate 3Cooxidation Breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl CoAoGlycogenolysis Glycogen to glucose1 phosphateRoles of Metabolism1To produce energy by the breakdown of fuels such as glucose and fatty acidsoNeed at least 2 mM of glucose for brain to function oCatabolic pathway 2To make molecules such as DNA RNA lipids proteins amino acids glucoseoAnabolic pathway3To make fuel storage molecules such as triglycerides and glycogenoAnabolic pathway4To convert one molecule into another oEg GlucoseFatty AcidsLots of glucose in system converted to acetylCoA which can be converted to fatty acidsStore glucose as fats in this wayoGenerally energy released during catabolism is used in anabolic pathways or in cellular work eg muscle contractionEnergy released from catabolism can be used to drive anabolic pathwaysBalance 2
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