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BIOB50 - LEC 5 - JAN 22 - DONE.docx

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Marc Cadotte

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Lecture 5 –  Nrg is the currency in eco sys SECONDARY PRODUCTION – org consume other consume  Produce biomass by consuming other biomass HETEROTROPHS  Broadly classified as  Consume resources in diff ways Glycolysis  Set pathways in which organ turn those C molecules into nrg  Sugar glycose– modified using ATP (using nrg)  Net effect – breaking apart bond – return is more energy (use 2 ATP, get 4 ATP back)  Consuming complex carbon – net return of energy Over half species on earth…  All exploitations – prey is resource to be used – always 1 way – benefit one and harm another Defined Secondary Production Some org matter consumed by…  Net 2ndary production =  Flexible in what they eat like omnivore  Some are prescribed only in what they can eat Herbs vs Carnivores  Herbs usually just eat 1 type of plant  Picky eaters  Almost never kill food eating – eat part of plant and grows back  Carn eat lot of diff things  Carn – as long as its meat – always kill thing consumed, usually prey survives by accident, but usually consumes the whole organism Agromyzid Fly have narrow diet  Always use plants –  150 species of fly that are specialized to one species of plant  Bars rep the # of fly species according to # of plant species eat  Few species of flyes that use lots of plants (few generalists – most are specialized)  Not the same for predators (wont see many predators eating just 1 species)  Herbs have even narrow diets Herbs tend to be more specialized than that – focusing on a single part of plant  Large herbs – eat all above ground parts but not roots  Other herbs – consume internal tissue of leaves Plants (reason why org select certain part of plant)  In terms of nutrition value – not every part of plant nutritious  Nitrogen content – some parts of plant – like phloem sap and xylem – low nitrogen  Only seeds/leaves w/ lots of nitrogen  As heterotrophs – you want a lot of nitrogen (N)  Organisms are happiest – eating most correct food when get N content most similar to body content  Heterotroph – high in N that’s similar conc N to own body makeup - optimizes food intake Broad exceptions to how we categorize heterotrophs (already mention one =  Omnivores – wolves bears, much time eat meat but berries nuts)  Parasitoids – typically insects – lay egg on another host – eggs emerge and eat their prey  12.4 – predator or parasites? Provision hunting wasp – sting caterpillar paralyzing it – like alien the movie  Charles Darwin – one of the organisms that that lead him to question nif anything is directing evolution  this thing epitomes pain and suffering- but maximizing own fitness  putting in morality in nature – makes a scary picture – but if ignore and see it as NS – its just a product of evolution Organism being exploited – over time – develop defense  cuz they want to maximize their fitness too  plants – structural defense – thorns, hairs on leaves Compensatory growth  grow in 1 way  if doesn’t get clipped – will grow tall – does well in comp and gets more light  but if clipped- will grow diff structure – branching to make more flowers – so if chopping is common – light isn’t as important than flowering  ctrl – unclipped  clipping early on –makes more fruit - has time for this compensatory growth to respond – higher fitness  if clipped too late – too late to dev structure Plants avoiding predation- make 2ndary compounds  chemicals that reduce herbivory (spices and nicotine)  someattract predators of parasites –  plant will release volatile chemicals to caterpillar – could be attracting parasitoids leads to suffering less herbivory (parasitoid and plant benefits) Animals defense  large size – elephant  speed - gazelle  body armor – snails, anteater Chemical defense  animaltoxin – they like to show it – plants don’t have a way to show it  aposematic coloration – as a warning Mimicry  crypsis – mimic the background (hiding)  mimic organismsthat look toxic  coral snake is venous ( red b4 yellow)  king snake is not Social Beh  meercats – diff calls for diff predators (vigila
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