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Lecture 4

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Jane Mitchell

Lecture 4 (recording 5) Genomes & Chromosomes Neanderthal Genome Sequence *Modern humans with non-African ancestral genomes contain approximately 1 - 4 % Neanderthal DNA Human genome *3 billion base pairs per genome *25,000 genes spread across 23 chromosomes *XX female, XY male +genomes can come in all sizes (bp: base pairs) *Mitochondria protein are transcribed in nucleus, translated in cytoplasm, translocated to surface of mitochondria, and assemblaged in mitochondria *prokaryotes are circular Ppt8 Comparing genome sizes -amoeba has larger genome than human→An organism’s complexity and size are not reflected in genome size. Ppt11 The human gene -Only 1.5% of your genome encodes protein -50% of your genome is repetitive DNA Protein or RNA does not reflect the number of genes *Intron: non-coding genes Repeated Sequence (regulatory, not undertood yet…): *retroviral-like element: *transposons Ppt 20 Packing of DNA in the cell -In prokaryotes, the DNA is condensed through folding and twisting about 1000 fold. Bound together, DNA + protein form the nucleoid -Important components of this packaging are: • Positively charged polyamines (stretches of amine containing compounds shield the charges on the (-) charged DNA strands. It allows the fold of DNA onto itself) • Numerous nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) such as (H: histone like) H-NS, the histone-like protein HU, IHF, FIS • Supercoiling of DNA by the enzyme topoisomerase (use ATP so the DNA get over twisted and form knots to be shortened for better packing) *human genome is huge -total length of DNA in human body: 2 X 1010 km So we need efficient packing Ppt15 *Karyotype (shapes and numbers of chromosomes determine the genetic disease) – array artificial of paired chromosomes in numerical order – diagnostic aid * How do you stain the chromosome? Denature the probe with fluorescent (for specific, and also denature the target
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