March 20, 2013.docx

3 Pages
119 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Cell and Systems Biology
Course
CSB202H1
Professor
Gray- Owen
Semester
Winter

Description
MIJ March 20, 2013 Therapeutic Vaccines Vaccines targeted for infection – for protection against infection – prophylactic so given before the infection Prophylactic vaccine – aim to prevent infection or disease – Cancer immunity – - In this individual, immune system not controlling infection - So these tumours avoid immune response - Immune system capable of using different means to attack cells – so it doesn’t seem to agree with supposition that immune system could not control tumour in cancer patient - In contrast to pathogen, tumour looks like self – so to immunize against it, by nature it is an AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSE – successful vaccine activates, reactivates immune system – to allow to detect transformed cells – - Problem – pathogen – Nmeng capsule looks like sugar that expressed during neonatal development – case of where antigen resembling self – so no immune response - In most cases, unless cancer driven by pathogenic infection, have to develop immune response How do you target a self cell? – ACTIVE AREA OF RESEARCH Three different strategies in how to use immune system to target tumours – vaccines against pathogen s- get antigen against tumour – soething that would be over-expressed in that tumour relative to most cells in body – very difficult – some things ex. CEACAM receptor 5 – this is upregulated on tumours in colon – upregulated when there is a tumour – during tumour, normal differentiation breaks down – have mass of cells that is tumour so CEA exposed to bloodstream – immune response from blood side – attack whole intestinal lining – depending on antigen and target – different strategies – binding protein and formulating it in various ways to elicit immune response – Spuleucel – provenge – immune based drug against Not a single formulation – personalized medicine example Isolate peripheral blood cells – invitro, load with GMCSF, a cytokine that activates cells and cause inflammation – prostate specific inflammation – antigen isonly in prostate gland, normally expressed there, but more of it in the tumour – Activate T cells and cause immunity Placebo – probability of survival over time If have the treatment early on – had life expentancy increased Four to five years – Castration-resistant – severe examples of prostate cancer – cannot be treated or surgically removed Vaccination with tumour-specific tumour derived antigen in first remission improves disease-free survival in follicular lymphoba B cell lymphoma – expanded drastically in individual – novel epitopes on those B cells – this epitope is the antibody – so have something to target Immunize with antibody; monitor survival B is results – actually was HPV tumours – immunize against HPV drug antigen in cells or remains on cells and cause improved survival and reduced – increase time until disease – similar thing – whereas this paper is targeting B cells Adaptive T cell transfer – second general strategy A lot of different antigens – example of first-pass approach – first kind of treatment – deciding on what antigen should be targeted and what other treatments it should be combined with – promising data One of the early approaches taken was to inject bacterial lysates into tumour – Direct injection into tumour and make effectrs – hope this elicits immune response to overcome immunoscuppresion there and increase promotion of tumour cell uptake so epitopes expressed on APC in tissues – new addition to this is to actually damage the tumour, using laser – so internal antigens and epitopes released T cells in tumours – belief that they already have tumour specificity, that’s why they’re there – some of these are actually not protective but maybe suppressive type T cells – wrong type of T cell to expand if want to target tumour Surgically remove portion of tumour – expand in vitro - cross link T cell receptor – get rapid expansion of these cell sin vitro – if there is leukocytes – lymphocytes recruited to tumour, they must be there for a reason – and
More Less

Related notes for CSB202H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit