Lecture 13.docx

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Cell and Systems Biology
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Francis Bambico

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 What can you do to help a patient with nerve injury? o Stem cells has shown promise in clinical trials  Grafting of stem cells in the cerebellum but problem is some neuronal axons get lost or it goes back to the transplant o Regeneration can occur in PNS but not so much the CNS because of Schwann cells in the PNS  SC is a type of glial cell in the PNS; astrocytes and oligo are glial cells in the CNS  SC can secrete neurotrophic factors  Astro and oligo impedes the growth cone (CSGF: ECM molecule) and forms a glial scar in gliosis – an inflammatory response o You can get Schwann cells from PNS and inject them into the area of injury but the SC will go everywhere – the growth cones wouldn’t know where to go o Alternative: take out part of the sciatic nerve, large nerve in the leg, and allow for Wallerian regeneration to eliminate the remaining axons in the sciatic nerve  Still have intact perineurium and endoneurium which will contain the schwann cells  Get that segment and transplant it to the area of the injury  Possible if you know the site of injury and innervation  But still under experimental testing  Called schwann cell bridges  Give top 5 stresses  What are you doing to reduce the effect of these stresses?  Chronic and unpredictable exposure to these stress-related events does not allow you to habituate  Eg. Soldiers  No DSE  Result: detrimental effects, especially synaptic structure  Minor, once in a while stressors, are good – increase your vigilance and exercises your mental faculties, develop prob solving strategies  Degeneration from physical injuries  Even without physical injuries, you can degenerate your neurons; such as chronic stress – not wallerian type  Includes apoptosis of the cell  Depression  10% of the population suffers from depression  By 2020, it’ll be consider a second leading cause of disability (1 is CVD)  The burden of cost to the medical community is staggering  Talked about the symptoms of depression in the slide  30% respond to anti-depressant drugs, 30% respond but relapse  2 phases of bipolar: manic/hyperactive state or depression/down state  Skinner box: operates under learned helplessness paradigm o 2 compartments with a door in between. o Lower door and place and animal/rat in one of the compartments o Apply electric current o After several trials, the rat would feel helpless and despair o After 50, 60 trials, the animal would not escape even when the door is opened o It would stay there and wallow in its condition; hysteria o Learned to wallow in helplessness o Standard tests to use to test antidepressant drugs o Chronic stress causes this  Place animal/rat in a tube filled with water o They would scramble a lot and try to escape o After 24 hours, place the same animal in the same tube o They will stay there and not move o This reaction is magnified if the animal
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